- 作者列表："Harakow HI","Hvidman L","Wejse C","Eiset AH
INTRODUCTION:Pregnancy is a time of increased vulnerability for women. Women of refugee background may be further challenged in pregnancy due to a complex series of physical, psychological and social factors. Previous studies show ambiguous results, with some showing increased the risk of prenatal complications in refugees compared with their native counterparts, whereas other studies report the opposite. With the current steep rise in the number of refugees and displaced persons worldwide, research is important to understand whether pregnancy disparities between this population and their native counterparts exist, and the causes. This systematic literature review aims to find out whether refugee women have a higher prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes and prenatal infections compared with native women. MATERIAL AND METHODS:We conducted a literature search in the databases PubMed and Embase, supplemented with screening of reference lists and citations for relevant literature. We included studies published in English reporting risk of preeclampsia, spontaneous abortion and stillbirths, preterm birth, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and adverse prenatal infectious diseases in women of refugee status. PROSPERO registration CRD42020205628. RESULTS:We identified 19 articles eligible for inclusion: 12 were cross-sectional, six were cohort studies and one was a case-control study. The most frequently reported outcome in the literature was preterm birth (reported in 16 of the studies) and preeclampsia (reported in 11 of the studies). Refugees had increased risk of stillbirth (reported relative risk ranging from 1.20 to 2.24) and spontaneous abortion (reported relative risk ranging from 1.56 to 1.58), when compared with native women and a decreased risk of preeclampsia (reported relative risk ranging from 0.65 to 0.81). CONCLUSIONS:The small number of articles eligible for inclusion in the review highlights the lack of research and knowledge on refugee health during pregnancy. Further research is required to understand and reduce disparities in pregnancy outcomes between refugee and non-refugee women.
引言: 怀孕是女性脆弱性增加的时期。由于一系列复杂的生理、心理和社会因素，具有难民背景的妇女在怀孕期间可能会受到进一步挑战。以前的研究显示出不明确的结果，一些研究显示与本地同行相比，难民的产前并发症风险增加，而其他研究报告则相反。随着目前全世界难民和流离失所者人数的急剧上升，研究对于了解这一人群与其本国居民之间是否存在怀孕差异以及原因非常重要。这一系统的文献综述旨在查明难民妇女与本地妇女相比，不良妊娠结局和产前感染的发生率是否较高。 材料和方法: 我们在PubMed和Embase数据库中进行了文献检索，并补充了相关文献的参考文献列表和引文筛选。我们纳入了发表在英文报告中的研究: 先兆子痫风险、自然流产和死胎、早产胎膜早破 (PPROM) 和难民妇女的不良产前感染性疾病。普洛斯彼罗注册crd42020205628。 结果: 我们确定了19篇符合纳入条件的文章: 12篇为横断面研究，6篇为队列研究，1篇为病例对照研究。文献中最常报告的结果是早产 (16项研究报告) 和先兆子痫 (11项研究报告)。与本地女性相比，难民的死产风险 (报告的相对风险为1.20至2.24) 和自然流产风险 (报告的相对风险为1.56至1.58) 增加，先兆子痫风险降低 (报告的相对风险为0.65至0.81)。 结论: 有资格纳入审查的文章数量很少，这突出表明缺乏关于怀孕期间难民健康的研究和知识。需要进一步研究，以了解和减少难民和非难民妇女之间怀孕结果的差异。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.