Does open ovarian biopsy in prepubertal age affect ovarian reserve in a rat model?
- 作者列表："Łuczak J","Bagłaj M","Ciaputa R","Szymerowski A","Nowak M
BACKGROUND:Partial resection of the ovary carries a possible risk of fertility reduction. We studied the influence of open ovarian biopsy on ovarian reserve, including anti-Müllerian hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone serum level evaluation, in a prepubertal rat model. METHODS:Interventions - the initial surgery was unilateral ovarian biopsy (38 rats, group B1, B2) or unilateral ovarian biopsy and ovarian resection of the contralateral gonad (38 rats, group BR1, BR2). The second operation was bilateral ovarian resection and total resection of the remaining ovary. All rats had hormone serum levels evaluated. The control group had only a blood test taken and bilateral ovarian resection done at the second intervention (30 rats, group C1, C2). The collected tissue was examined estimating follicle count and anti-Müllerian hormone immunoexpression. RESULTS:Anti-Müllerian hormone levels were significantly lower at the second intervention in the group BR2 but significantly higher in the group C2. Follicle-stimulating hormone levels were significantly higher in all but one group (BR2). CONCLUSIONS:Biopsy itself might not reduce ovarian reserve if done properly but we should know its possible negative effects in the case of a single remaining ovary.
背景: 卵巢部分切除可能有降低生育能力的风险。我们在青春期前大鼠模型中研究了开放卵巢活检对卵巢储备的影响，包括抗苗勒管激素和卵泡刺激素血清水平评估。 方法: 干预-最初的手术是单侧卵巢活检 (38只大鼠，B1，B2组) 或单侧卵巢活检和对侧性腺的卵巢切除 (38只大鼠，BR1，BR2组)。第二次手术为双侧卵巢切除，剩余卵巢全切除。所有大鼠都评估了激素血清水平。对照组仅进行血液测试并在第二次干预时进行双侧卵巢切除术 (30只大鼠，组C1，C2)。检查收集的组织，估计卵泡计数和抗苗勒管激素免疫表达。 结果: BR2组第二次干预时抗苗勒管激素水平显著降低，而c2组显著升高。除一组 (BR2) 外，所有组的促卵泡激素水平均显著升高。 结论: 如果做的好，活检本身可能不会减少卵巢储备，但我们应该知道它在单个剩余卵巢的情况下可能的负面影响。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.