Current status of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy in breast cancer.
- 作者列表："Noguchi E","Shien T","Iwata H
:Over the past 10 years, immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has revolutionized the management of various cancers. However, immunotherapy in breast cancer has not been successful. Breast cancer has long been recognized as an immunologically 'cold' tumor, although a higher frequency of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes present in certain subtypes and an association between tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and favorable prognosis have been reported. In March 2019, the combination of atezolizumab and nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel was granted accelerated approval in the United States for the treatment of programmed death-ligand 1-positive advanced or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. This finally opened the door for immune checkpoint blockade therapy for breast cancer. Several clinical trials have been conducted using different combinations of immune checkpoint inhibitors and chemotherapy or targeted agents in various treatment settings for metastatic breast cancer and early-stage breast cancer. In this review, we summarize recent advances in immune checkpoint blockade therapy and predictive biomarkers in breast cancer.
: 在过去的10年中，免疫检查点抑制剂的免疫疗法彻底改变了各种癌症的管理。然而，乳腺癌的免疫治疗尚未成功。乳腺癌长期以来被认为是一种免疫学上的 “冷” 肿瘤，尽管已经报道了在某些亚型中存在较高频率的肿瘤浸润淋巴细胞以及肿瘤浸润淋巴细胞与良好预后之间的关联。2019年3月，阿特珠单抗联合纳米粒白蛋白结合型紫杉醇在美国获得加速批准，用于治疗程序性死亡配体1阳性晚期或转移性三阴性乳腺癌.这终于为乳腺癌的免疫检查点阻断疗法打开了大门。已经在转移性乳腺癌和早期乳腺癌的各种治疗环境中使用免疫检查点抑制剂和化疗或靶向剂的不同组合进行了若干临床试验。在这篇综述中，我们总结了乳腺癌免疫检查点阻断治疗和预测生物标志物的最新进展。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.