- 作者列表："Jamjoom AAB","Rhodes J","Andrews PJD","Grant SGN
:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide and is a risk factor for dementia later in life. Research into the pathophysiology of TBI has focused on the impact of injury on the neuron. However, recent advances have shown that TBI has a major impact on synapse structure and function through a combination of the immediate mechanical insult and the ensuing secondary injury processes, leading to synapse loss. In this review, we highlight the role of the synapse in TBI pathophysiology with a focus on the confluence of multiple secondary injury processes including excitotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress. The primary insult triggers a cascade of events in each of these secondary processes and we discuss the complex interplay that occurs at the synapse. We also examine how the synapse is impacted by traumatic axonal injury and the role it may play in the spread of tau after TBI. We propose that astrocytes play a crucial role by mediating both synapse loss and recovery. Finally, we highlight recent developments in the field including synapse molecular imaging, fluid biomarkers and therapeutics. In particular, we discuss advances in our understanding of synapse diversity and suggest that the new technology of synaptome mapping may prove useful in identifying synapses that are vulnerable or resistant to TBI.
: 创伤性脑损伤 (TBI) 是全世界死亡和残疾的主要原因，并且是以后生活中痴呆的危险因素。TBI的病理生理学研究主要集中在损伤对神经元的影响。然而，最近的进展表明，TBI通过直接机械损伤和随后的继发性损伤过程的组合对突触结构和功能具有重大影响，导致突触损失。在这篇综述中，我们强调突触在TBI病理生理学中的作用，重点是多种继发性损伤过程的融合，包括兴奋性毒性、炎症和氧化应激。初级损伤在这些次级过程中的每一个中触发一连串事件，我们讨论了突触处发生的复杂相互作用。我们还研究了突触如何受到创伤性轴索损伤的影响，以及它可能在TBI后tau的传播中发挥的作用。我们提出星形胶质细胞通过介导突触丢失和恢复发挥关键作用。最后，我们强调了该领域的最新发展，包括突触分子成像，流体生物标志物和治疗。特别是，我们讨论了我们对突触多样性理解的进展，并表明突触体图谱的新技术可能有助于识别对TBI脆弱或有抵抗力的突触。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.