- 作者列表："Rossini L","De Santis D","Mauceri RR","Tesoriero C","Bentivoglio M","Maderna E","Maiorana A","Deleo F","de Curtis M","Tringali G","Cossu M","Tumminelli G","Bramerio M","Spreafico R","Tassi L","Garbelli R
:Neuronal dendritic arborizations and dendritic spines are crucial for a normal synaptic transmission and may be critically involved in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Alterations in dendritic morphology and spine loss mainly in hippocampal neurons have been reported both in epilepsy animal models and in human brain tissues from patients with epilepsy. However, it is still unclear whether these dendritic abnormalities relate to the cause of epilepsy or are generated by seizure recurrence. We investigated fine neuronal structures at the level of dendritic and spine organization using Golgi impregnation, and analysed synaptic networks with immunohistochemical markers of glutamatergic (vGLUT1) and GABAergic (vGAT) axon terminals in human cerebral cortices derived from epilepsy surgery. Specimens were obtained from 28 patients with different neuropathologically defined aetiologies: type Ia and type II focal cortical dysplasia, cryptogenic (no lesion) and temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Autoptic tissues were used for comparison. Three-dimensional reconstructions of Golgi-impregnated neurons revealed severe dendritic reshaping and spine alteration in the core of the type II focal cortical dysplasia. Dysmorphic neurons showed increased dendritic complexity, reduction of dendritic spines and occasional filopodia-like protrusions emerging from the soma. Surprisingly, the intermingled normal-looking pyramidal neurons also showed severe spine loss and simplified dendritic arborization. No changes were observed outside the dysplasia (perilesional tissue) or in neocortical postsurgical tissue obtained in the other patient groups. Immunoreactivities of vGLUT1 and vGAT showed synaptic reorganization in the core of type II dysplasia characterized by the presence of abnormal perisomatic baskets around dysmorphic neurons, in particular those with filopodia-like protrusions, and changes in vGLUT1/vGAT expression. Ultrastructural data in type II dysplasia highlighted the presence of altered neuropil engulfed by glial processes. Our data indicate that the fine morphological aspect of neurons and dendritic spines are normal in epileptogenic neocortex, with the exception of type II dysplastic lesions. The findings suggest that the mechanisms leading to this severe form of cortical malformation interfere with the normal dendritic arborization and synaptic network organization. The data argue against the concept that long-lasting epilepsy and seizure recurrence per se unavoidably produce a dendritic pathology.
: 神经元树突化和树突棘对正常突触传递至关重要，可能与癫痫的病理生理学密切相关。在癫痫动物模型和来自癫痫患者的人脑组织中已经报道了主要在海马神经元中的树突形态的改变和脊柱损失。然而，目前还不清楚这些树突异常是否与癫痫的病因有关，还是由癫痫复发产生的。我们使用高尔基体浸渍法研究了树突和脊柱组织水平的精细神经元结构，并分析了来自癫痫手术的人脑皮质中谷氨酸能 (vGLUT1) 和gaba能 (vGAT) 轴突末端的免疫组织化学标记的突触网络。标本来自28例不同神经病理学定义的患者: Ia型和II型局灶性皮质发育不良，隐源性 (无病变) 和颞叶癫痫伴海马硬化。自体组织用于比较。高尔基体浸渍的神经元的三维重建揭示了II型局灶性皮质发育不良核心的严重树突重塑和脊柱改变。变形神经元显示树突复杂性增加，树突棘减少，偶有丝状足状突起从胞体中出现。令人惊讶的是，混合的正常外观的锥体神经元也表现出严重的脊柱丢失和简化的树突树形化。在其他患者组中获得的发育异常 (周围组织) 外或新皮质术后组织中没有观察到变化。vGLUT1和vGAT的免疫反应性显示II型发育不良核心的突触重组，其特征在于畸形神经元周围存在异常的外周篮，特别是那些具有丝状突起的神经元，以及vGLUT1/vGAT表达的变化。II型发育不良的超微结构数据突出了被神经胶质过程吞噬的改变的神经pil的存在。我们的数据表明，除了II型发育不良病变外，神经元和树突棘的精细形态在致痫性新皮层中是正常的。研究结果表明，导致这种严重形式的皮质畸形的机制干扰了正常的树突树形化和突触网络组织。数据反对长期癫痫和癫痫发作本身不可避免地产生树突状病理的概念。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.