The effect of diet-induced obesity and pasture on blood pressure and serum cortisol in Standardbred mares.
- 作者列表："Nostell K","Lindåse S","Winqvist E","Bröjer J
BACKGROUND:Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and altered cortisol metabolism both in humans and in horses. OBJECTIVES:Evaluate the effect of weight gain induced by a haylage diet low in nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) on insulin sensitivity, blood pressure and serum cortisol concentrations. STUDY DESIGN:In vivo experiment. METHODS:Nine adult Standardbred mares fed a fat supplemented haylage diet at 250% of the horses' daily metabolisable energy requirements for 22 weeks. Horses were then turned out on pasture for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity (SICLAMP ) was measured before and after weight gain and after 4 weeks of pasture using the euglycemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (EHC) method. Body condition score (BCS), blood pressure and serum cortisol were monitored throughout the study. All data were analysed using the linear mixed model procedure. Values of P < 0.05 were considered as statistically different. RESULTS:All horses became obese during the weight gain period (BCS> 7). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) increased during the weight gain period and was significantly higher than initial values at the end of the weight gain period (78 ± 3 mm Hg vs 92 ± 3 mmHg). MAP remained increased on pasture (93 ± 3 mmHg). SICLAMP was unaffected by weight gain 0.9 ± 0.1 vs 1.0 ± 0.1 ([mg/kg/min × 103 ]/[µIU/mL × mmol/L])) but improved after pasture (1.6 ± 0.1 ([mg/kg/min × 103 ]/ [mU/L]). Serum cortisol concentrations increased during the weight gain period (80 ± 9 nmol/L vs 112 ± 9 nmol/L) and remained increased during pasture. MAIN LIMITATIONS:Limited number of horses and no control group. CONCLUSIONS:Obesity was associated with a linear increase in blood pressure and an increase in serum cortisol that was not associated with insulin sensitivity.
背景: 肥胖与人和马的胰岛素抵抗、血管功能障碍和皮质醇代谢改变有关。 目的: 评估低非结构碳水化合物 (NSC) 海拉格饮食诱导的体重增加对胰岛素敏感性、血压和血清皮质醇浓度的影响。 研究设计: 体内实验。 方法: 9只成年标准母马以马匹每日可代谢能量需求的250% 喂养脂肪补充海拉格饮食22周。然后将马放在牧场上4周。使用正常血糖高胰岛素钳夹 (EHC) 方法在体重增加之前和之后以及在牧场4周之后测量胰岛素敏感性 (SICLAMP)。在整个研究中监测身体状况评分 (BCS) 、血压和血清皮质醇。使用线性混合模型程序分析所有数据。P <0.05的值被认为是统计学上不同的。 结果: 所有的马在体重增加期间变得肥胖 (BCS> 7)。平均动脉血压 (MAP) 在体重增加期间增加，并且在体重增加期间结束时显著高于初始值 (78 ± 3毫米mmHg vs 92 ± 3 mmHg)。MAP在牧草上保持增加 (93 ± 3 mmHg)。SICLAMP不受体重增加的影响0.9 ± 0.1 vs 1.0 ± 0.1 ([mg/kg/min × 103 ]/[µ iu/mL × mmol/L]) 但改良后牧草 (1.6 ± 0.1 ([mg/kg/min × 103 ]/ [mU/L])。血清皮质醇浓度在增重期间增加 (80 ± 9 nmol/L vs 112 ± 9 nmol/L)，并且在牧草期间保持增加。 主要限制: 有限数量的马和没有对照组。 结论: 肥胖与血压线性升高和血清皮质醇升高相关，而与胰岛素敏感性无关。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.