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Epigenetic control of exercise adaptations in the equine athlete: Current evidence and future directions.

马运动员运动适应的表观遗传控制: 当前证据和未来方向。

  • 影响因子:1.86
  • DOI:10.1111/evj.13320
  • 作者列表:"Denham J","McCluskey M","Denham MM","Sellami M","Davie AJ
  • 发表时间:2021-05-01
Abstract

:Horses (Equus ferus caballus) have evolved over the past 300 years in response to man-made selection for particular athletic traits. Some of the selected traits were selected based on the size and horses' muscular power (eg Clydesdales), whereas other breeds were bred for peak running performance (eg Thoroughbred and Arabian). Although the physiological changes and some of the cellular adaptations responsible for athletic potential of horses have been identified, the molecular mechanisms are only just beginning to be comprehensively investigated. The purpose of this review was to outline and discuss the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the athletic performance and cardiorespiratory fitness in athletic breeds of horses. A brief review of the biology of epigenetics is provided, including discussion on DNA methylation, histone modifications and small RNAs, followed by a summary and critical review of the current work on the exercise-induced epigenetic and transcriptional changes in horses. Important unanswered questions and currently unexplored areas that deserve attention are highlighted. Finally, a rationale for the analysis of epigenetic modifications in the context with exercise-related traits and ailments associated with athletic breeds of horses is outlined in order to help guide future research.

摘要

: 马 (Equus ferus caballus) 在过去的300年中已经进化,以响应对特定运动特征的人为选择。一些选择的性状是根据大小和马的肌肉力量 (如Clydesdales) 选择的,而其他品种是为了达到最佳跑步性能而培育的 (如纯种马和阿拉伯品种)。虽然已经确定了与马的运动潜力有关的生理变化和一些细胞适应,但分子机制才刚刚开始全面研究。这篇综述的目的是概述和讨论目前对支持运动品种马的运动表现和心肺健康的分子机制的理解。提供了对表观遗传学生物学的简要回顾,包括对DNA甲基化、组蛋白修饰和小rna的讨论,随后对目前关于马的运动诱导的表观遗传和转录变化的工作进行了总结和评论。强调了值得关注的重要未回答的问题和目前尚未探索的领域。最后,概述了在与运动相关的性状和与马的运动品种相关的疾病的背景下分析表观遗传修饰的基本原理,以帮助指导未来的研究。

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