- 作者列表："Leng J","McNally S","Walton G","Swann J","Proudman C","Argo C","Emery S","La Ragione R","Eustace R
BACKGROUND:Gut microbial communities are increasingly being linked to diseases in animals and humans. Obesity and its associated diseases are a concern for horse owners and veterinarians, and there is a growing interest in the link between diet, the intestinal microbiota and metabolic disease. OBJECTIVES:Assess the influence of long-term hay or haylage feeding on the microbiota and metabolomes of 20 Welsh mountain ponies. STUDY DESIGN:Longitudinal study. METHODS:Urine, faeces and blood were collected from 20 ponies on a monthly basis over a 13-month period. Urine and faeces were analysed using proton magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) spectroscopy and faecal bacterial DNA underwent 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS:Faecal bacterial community profiles were observed to be different for the two groups, with discriminant analysis identifying 102 bacterial groups (or operational taxonomic units, OTUs) that differed in relative abundance in accordance with forage type. Urinary metabolic profiles of the hay and haylage fed ponies were significantly different during 12 of the 13 months of the study. Notably, the urinary excretion of hippurate was greater in the hay fed ponies for the duration of the study, while ethyl-glucoside excretion was higher in the haylage fed ponies. MAIN LIMITATIONS:The study was undertaken over a 13-month period and both groups of ponies had access to pasture during the summer months. CONCLUSIONS:The data generated from this study, suggest that the choice of forage may have implications for the intestinal microbiota and metabolism of ponies and therefore, potentially their health status. Understanding the potential implication of feeding a particular type of forage will enable horse owners to make more informed choices with regard to feed, especially if their horse or pony is prone to weight gain.
背景: 肠道微生物群落越来越多地与动物和人类的疾病联系在一起。肥胖及其相关疾病是马主人和兽医关注的问题，并且人们对饮食，肠道微生物群和代谢疾病之间的联系越来越感兴趣。 目的: 评估长期干草或海兔饲养对20匹威尔士山地小马微生物群和代谢组的影响。 研究设计: 纵向研究。 方法: 在13个月的时间里，每月收集20匹小马的尿液、粪便和血液。使用质子磁共振 (1 hnmr) 光谱法分析尿液和粪便，并对粪便细菌DNA进行16srrna基因测序。 结果: 观察到两组粪便细菌群落谱不同，判别分析确定了102个细菌组 (或操作分类单位，OTUs)，它们根据饲料类型的相对丰度不同。在研究的13个月中的12个月期间，干草和海狗喂养的小马的尿液代谢特征显著不同。值得注意的是，在研究期间，干草喂养的小马中马尿酸盐的尿排泄较多，而乙基-葡萄糖苷排泄在海兔喂养的小马中较高。 主要限制: 该研究进行了13个月的时间，两组小马在夏季月份都可以进入牧场。 结论: 本研究产生的数据表明，饲料的选择可能对小马的肠道微生物群和代谢有影响，因此可能影响它们的健康状况。了解喂养特定类型饲料的潜在影响将使马主能够在饲料方面做出更明智的选择，特别是如果他们的马或小马容易体重增加。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.