Asymmetries of horses walking and trotting on treadmill with and without rider.
- 作者列表："Byström A","Clayton HM","Hernlund E","Roepstorff L","Rhodin M","Bragança FS","Engell MT","van Weeren R","Weishaupt MA","Egenvall A
BACKGROUND:Left-right movement symmetry is a highly desirable characteristic in sport horses. OBJECTIVES:This study compared movement symmetry in well-trained dressage horses in unridden and unrestrained position and ridden in a dressage frame, and investigated possible associations between gaits. STUDY DESIGN:Experimental study. METHODS:Seven sound, high-level dressage horses were measured at walk and sitting trot on a treadmill at several speeds under two conditions: with and without rider. Left-right differences in stance duration, stance protraction and retraction based on longitudinal hoof positions, ipsilateral limb tracking, minimum and maximum vertical positions of the dorsal spinous processes of the sixth thoracic (T6), third sacral vertebrae (S3) and wing of atlas, and vertical ground reaction forces were calculated and analysed in mixed models. RESULTS:At walk, five body variables indicated increased asymmetry in the ridden condition compared with unridden condition: forelimb stance duration (unridden/ridden left-right differences 9 vs 13 ms; P = .008), forelimb stance protraction (P = .004), stance retraction (P = .001) and first force peak (P = .003), and hindlimb stance retraction (P = .01). At trot, six body variables were more asymmetrical in the ridden condition: forelimb stance duration (2.5 vs 3.8 ms, P = .004); hindlimb stance protraction (P < .0001) and retraction (P = .01), T6 minimum (4 vs 6 mm, P = .001), T6 maximum (9 vs 11 mm, P = .01) and S3 maximum (6 vs 12 mm, P < .001). Five variables had significant associations between asymmetries at walk and trot, but only three demonstrated a positive slope. MAIN LIMITATIONS:A limited number of horses and riders were studied. Measurements were performed on a treadmill. CONCLUSIONS:High-level horses moved slightly more asymmetrically when ridden in a dressage frame than in the unridden condition.
背景: 左右运动对称性是运动马非常理想的特征。 目的: 本研究比较了训练有素的盛装舞步马在未骑和无约束位置以及在盛装舞步框架中骑的运动对称性，并调查了步态之间可能的关联。 研究设计: 实验研究。 方法: 在两个条件下 (有和没有骑手)，在跑步机上以几种速度测量7匹声音，高水平的盛装舞步马在步行和坐着小跑。左右基于纵向蹄位、同侧肢体跟踪、第六胸椎 (T6) 、第三骶椎 (S3) 和寰椎翼部背侧棘突最小和最大垂直位置的站姿持续时间、站姿前牵引和回缩的差异，在混合模型中计算和分析了垂直地面反作用力。 结果: 在行走时，五个身体变量表明与未伸展的情况相比，在伸展的情况下增加了不对称性: 前肢站立持续时间 (未伸展/伸展的左右差异9 ms vs 13 ms; P = .008)，前肢站立前牵引 (P = .004)，姿势后退 (P = .001) 和第一力峰 (P = .003)，和后肢立位退缩 (P = .01)。在小跑时，六个身体变量在骑行状态下更加不对称: 前肢站立持续时间 (2.5 vs 3.8 ms，P = .004); 后肢站立前牵引 (P < .0001) 和后退 (P = .01)，T6最小 (4 vs 6毫米，P = .001)，T6最大(9 vs 11毫米，P = .01) 和S3最大值 (6 vs 12毫米，P <.001)。5个变量在步行和小跑的不对称性之间有显著的关联，但只有3个变量表现出正斜率。 主要限制: 研究了有限数量的马和骑手。在跑步机上进行测量。 结论: 在盛装舞步中骑时，高水平的马比在没有骑的情况下稍微不对称。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.