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Asymmetries of horses walking and trotting on treadmill with and without rider.

有和没有骑手的马在跑步机上行走和小跑的不对称性。

  • 影响因子:1.86
  • DOI:10.1111/evj.13252
  • 作者列表:"Byström A","Clayton HM","Hernlund E","Roepstorff L","Rhodin M","Bragança FS","Engell MT","van Weeren R","Weishaupt MA","Egenvall A
  • 发表时间:2021-01-01
Abstract

BACKGROUND:Left-right movement symmetry is a highly desirable characteristic in sport horses. OBJECTIVES:This study compared movement symmetry in well-trained dressage horses in unridden and unrestrained position and ridden in a dressage frame, and investigated possible associations between gaits. STUDY DESIGN:Experimental study. METHODS:Seven sound, high-level dressage horses were measured at walk and sitting trot on a treadmill at several speeds under two conditions: with and without rider. Left-right differences in stance duration, stance protraction and retraction based on longitudinal hoof positions, ipsilateral limb tracking, minimum and maximum vertical positions of the dorsal spinous processes of the sixth thoracic (T6), third sacral vertebrae (S3) and wing of atlas, and vertical ground reaction forces were calculated and analysed in mixed models. RESULTS:At walk, five body variables indicated increased asymmetry in the ridden condition compared with unridden condition: forelimb stance duration (unridden/ridden left-right differences 9 vs 13 ms; P = .008), forelimb stance protraction (P = .004), stance retraction (P = .001) and first force peak (P = .003), and hindlimb stance retraction (P = .01). At trot, six body variables were more asymmetrical in the ridden condition: forelimb stance duration (2.5 vs 3.8 ms, P = .004); hindlimb stance protraction (P < .0001) and retraction (P = .01), T6 minimum (4 vs 6 mm, P = .001), T6 maximum (9 vs 11 mm, P = .01) and S3 maximum (6 vs 12 mm, P < .001). Five variables had significant associations between asymmetries at walk and trot, but only three demonstrated a positive slope. MAIN LIMITATIONS:A limited number of horses and riders were studied. Measurements were performed on a treadmill. CONCLUSIONS:High-level horses moved slightly more asymmetrically when ridden in a dressage frame than in the unridden condition.

摘要

背景: 左右运动对称性是运动马非常理想的特征。 目的: 本研究比较了训练有素的盛装舞步马在未骑和无约束位置以及在盛装舞步框架中骑的运动对称性,并调查了步态之间可能的关联。 研究设计: 实验研究。 方法: 在两个条件下 (有和没有骑手),在跑步机上以几种速度测量7匹声音,高水平的盛装舞步马在步行和坐着小跑。左右基于纵向蹄位、同侧肢体跟踪、第六胸椎 (T6) 、第三骶椎 (S3) 和寰椎翼部背侧棘突最小和最大垂直位置的站姿持续时间、站姿前牵引和回缩的差异,在混合模型中计算和分析了垂直地面反作用力。 结果: 在行走时,五个身体变量表明与未伸展的情况相比,在伸展的情况下增加了不对称性: 前肢站立持续时间 (未伸展/伸展的左右差异9 ms vs 13 ms; P = .008),前肢站立前牵引 (P = .004),姿势后退 (P = .001) 和第一力峰 (P = .003),和后肢立位退缩 (P = .01)。在小跑时,六个身体变量在骑行状态下更加不对称: 前肢站立持续时间 (2.5 vs 3.8 ms,P = .004); 后肢站立前牵引 (P < .0001) 和后退 (P = .01),T6最小 (4 vs 6毫米,P = .001),T6最大(9 vs 11毫米,P = .01) 和S3最大值 (6 vs 12毫米,P <.001)。5个变量在步行和小跑的不对称性之间有显著的关联,但只有3个变量表现出正斜率。 主要限制: 研究了有限数量的马和骑手。在跑步机上进行测量。 结论: 在盛装舞步中骑时,高水平的马比在没有骑的情况下稍微不对称。

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