- 作者列表："Yamaguchi M","Nakagawa K","Suzuki K","Takamochi K","Ito H","Okami J","Aokage K","Shiono S","Yoshioka H","Aoki T","Tsutani Y","Okada M","Watanabe SI","Lung Cancer Surgical Study Group (LCSSG) of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG).
:Locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, especially mediastinal lymph node metastasis-positive stage IIIA-N2 cancer, is a heterogeneous disease state characterized by anatomically locally advanced disease with latent micrometastases. Thus, surgical resection or radiotherapy alone has historically failed to cure this disease. During the last three decades, persistent efforts have been made to develop a suitable treatment modality to overcome these problems using chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy with surgical resection. However, the role of surgical resection remains unclear, and the standard treatment for stage IIIA-N2 disease is concurrent chemoradiotherapy. In general, adjuvant chemotherapy is indicated for completely resected pathological stage IB disease or lymph node metastasis-positive pathological stage II or IIIA disease. Platinum-based doublet cytotoxic chemotherapy is currently the standard regimen. Additionally, post-operative radiotherapy might be indicated for post-operatively proven mediastinal lymph node metastasis; i.e. clinical N0-1 and pathological N2 disease. With the remarkable progression that has recently been made in the field of chemotherapy, such as advances in molecular targeting agents and immune checkpoint inhibitors, the basic policy of chemotherapy has been shifting to personalized treatment based on the individual patient's oncogene driver mutation status, immune status and other parameters. The same trend is being seen in the treatment of stage IIIA-N2 disease. We should consider the past and upcoming results of several clinical trials to optimize the coming era of personalized treatment.
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.