- 作者列表："Freeman DE","Mooney A","Giguère S","Claire J","Evetts C","Diskant P
BACKGROUND:Measurements of water consumed by fed healthy horses might not apply to horses that are unwilling or unable to drink or are not fed for any reason. OBJECTIVE:To examine the effects of feed deprivation on voluntary water consumption compared with fed conditions. STUDY DESIGN:In vivo experiment. METHODS:Eight healthy adult Thoroughbred geldings were used in a randomised crossover design so that each horse served as its own control for fed vs feed-deprived conditions. Water intake, bodyweight, physical findings and vital signs were measured during 4 days of feeding and 4 days of feed deprivation. Daily measurements during the trial periods were PCV, TPP, electrolytes, osmolality and triglycerides. Plasma and extracellular fluid volumes were measured in the last 8 hours of the trial periods. Data were analysed with a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, and statistical significance was P ≤ .05. RESULTS:Feed deprivation immediately and persistently reduced water consumption to ~16% of fed values, with laboratory evidence of mild dehydration on day 4. MAIN LIMITATIONS:Changes in total body water and in water and electrolyte excretion or conservation through faeces and urine were not measured. CONCLUSIONS:Feed consumption has a marked effect on water requirements in healthy horses. Because current guidelines for water needs were obtained in the fed state, they might not apply to horses that are denied feed for any reason or have reduced feed intake. This study provides new information on water consumption in horses that should apply to this essential nutrient in health and disease.
背景: 测量被喂食的健康马消耗的水可能不适用于不愿意或不能喝水或出于任何原因没有被喂食的马。 目的: 比较饲料剥夺与喂养条件对自主饮水量的影响。 研究设计: 体内实验。 方法: 在随机交叉设计中使用八个健康的成年纯种马，以使每匹马作为其自身的饲养条件与饲料剥夺条件的对照。在喂养4天和饲料剥夺4天期间测量水摄入量、体重、身体发现和生命体征。试验期间的每日测量值为PCV、TPP、电解质、渗透压和甘油三酯。在试验期的最后8小时测量血浆和细胞外液体积。数据采用双向方差分析与重复测量进行分析，统计学意义为P ≤ 0.05。 结果: 饲料剥夺立即并持续地将水消耗降低至饲喂值的 ~ 16%，在第4天具有轻度脱水的实验室证据。 主要限制: 没有测量到全身水以及水和电解质排泄或通过粪便和尿液保存的变化。 结论: 饲料消耗对健康马的需水量有显著影响。由于目前的水需求指南是在喂食状态下获得的，因此它们可能不适用于因任何原因被拒绝喂食或饲料摄入量减少的马。这项研究提供了关于马的水消耗的新信息，这些信息应该适用于健康和疾病中的这种必需营养素。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.