- 作者列表："Michanek P","Toth T","Bergström E","Treffenberg-Pettersson H","Bergh A
BACKGROUND:Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are commonly used for treating a variety of disorders in horses, including wounds. Despite its claim to shorten healing times, there is a lack of scientific documentation regarding its effects. OBJECTIVES:To investigate if treatment with pulsating visible red light (λ ≈ 637 nm) and near-infrared (NIR) light (λ ≈ 956 nm) affects wound healing. STUDY DESIGN:Randomised blinded controlled experimental study. METHODS:A circular skin wound (Ø = 2 cm) was created on each side of the neck in eight healthy horses. One randomly chosen wound received light treatment and the other served as an untreated control. Treatment duration was 4 minutes and 40 seconds (red light 95 seconds, 2.3 mW/cm2 ; NIR light 185 seconds, 6.4 mW/cm2 ) and was performed once daily on day 0-4, 7-11, 14-18 and 21-25. The wounds were photographed and evaluated using digital photoplanimetry on day 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. The degree of swelling was assessed with diagnostic ultrasound on the same days except the last recording was performed on day 36 instead of 35. Days to total healing was recorded. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis (P < .05). RESULTS:The wound area (P = .2-.9) and degree of swelling (P = .2-1.0) did not differ between treated and control groups on any day. There was a significant difference (P = .03) in healing time between control (49.0, 95% CI = 35.4-62.6 days) and treated wounds (51.8, 95% CI = 38.7-64.8 days). MAIN LIMITATIONS:The wounds were treated until day 25 and this study does not investigate the effect of a longer treatment period than 25 days. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study do not indicate any clinically relevant positive effect of pulsating visible red light and NIR light on the healing of experimental skin wounds in horses, compared with no treatment.
背景: 发光二极管 (led) 通常用于治疗马的各种疾病，包括伤口。尽管它声称缩短愈合时间，但缺乏关于其效果的科学文献。 目的: 研究脉冲可见红光 (λ ≈ 637 nm) 和近红外 (NIR) 光 (λ ≈ 956 nm) 治疗是否影响伤口愈合。 研究设计: 随机盲法对照实验研究。 方法: 在八匹健康马的颈部每侧产生圆形皮肤伤口 (Ø = 2厘米)。一个随机选择的伤口接受光处理，另一个作为未处理的对照。处理持续时间为4分40秒 (红光95秒，2.3 mW/cm2; NIR光185秒，6.4 mW/cm2)，并且在第0-4、7-11、14-18和21-25天每天进行一次。在第0、1、2、3、4、7、14、21、28和35天，对伤口进行拍照和评估。除了在第36天而不是第35天进行最后记录之外，在相同的日子用诊断超声评估肿胀程度。记录至完全愈合的天数。使用ANOVA进行统计学分析 (P <.05)。 结果: 治疗组和对照组在任何一天的伤口面积 (P = .2-.9) 和肿胀程度 (P = .2-1.0) 没有差异。对照组 (.03，49.0 CI = 95%-35.4天) 和处理伤口 (62.6，51.8 CI = 95%-38.7天) 之间的愈合时间存在显著差异 (P = 64.8)。 主要限制: 伤口治疗至第25天，并且本研究不调查超过25天的更长治疗期的效果。 结论: 与未治疗相比，本研究的结果没有表明脉动可见红光和NIR光对马的实验性皮肤伤口愈合的任何临床相关的积极影响。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.