- 作者列表："Veres-Nyéki KO","Nyéki J","Bodó G","Spadavecchia C
BACKGROUND:Quantitative sensory testing methods are now standard in the evaluation of sensory function in man, while few normal equine values have been reported. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this experimental study was (a) to define the tactile sensory, mechanical nociceptive and thermal nociceptive thresholds of the equine face; (b) to assess the effect of age, sex, stimulation site and shaving; (c) to evaluate the reliability of the methods and (d) to provide reference facial quantitative sensory testing values. STUDY DESIGN:Method description. METHODS:Thirty-four healthy Warmblood horses were used in the study. Six (tactile sensory threshold) and five (mechanical nociceptive and thermal nociceptive thresholds) areas of the left side of the face with clear anatomical landmarks were evaluated. Ten horses had two (mechanical nociceptive threshold) or three (tactile sensory and thermal nociceptive thresholds) of these areas shaved for another study. A linear Mixed model was used for data analysis. RESULTS:All thresholds increased with age (tactile sensory threshold: by 0.90 g/y (CI = [0.12 g; 0.36 g]) P = .001; mechanical nociceptive threshold: by 0.25 N/y (CI = [0.13-0.36 N]) P = .000; thermal nociceptive threshold: by 0.2°C/y (CI = [0.055-0.361]) P = .008). Sex had no effect on thresholds (tactile sensory threshold: P = .1; mechanical nociceptive threshold: P = .09; thermal nociceptive threshold: P = .2). Stimulation site affected tactile sensory and mechanical nociceptive thresholds (P = .001 and P = .008), but not thermal nociceptive threshold (P = .9). Shaving had no significant effect on any of the thresholds (tactile sensory threshold: P = .06; mechanical nociceptive threshold: P = .08; thermal nociceptive threshold: P = .09). MAIN LIMITATIONS:Only the left side was investigated and measurements were obtained on a single occasion. CONCLUSIONS:Handheld quantitative sensory testing does not require shaving or clipping to provide reliable measurements. Stimulation over the nostril (tactile sensory threshold), temporomandibular joint (mechanical nociceptive threshold) and supraorbital foramen (thermal nociceptive threshold) resulted in the most consistent thresholds.
背景: 目前，定量感觉测试方法已成为评价人类感觉功能的标准，而正常马值的报道很少。 目的: 这项实验研究的目的是 (a) 定义马面部的触觉感觉、机械伤害性和热伤害性阈值; (b) 评估年龄、性别、刺激部位和剃须的影响; (c) 评估方法的可靠性和 (d)为面部定量感觉检测值提供参考。 研究设计: 方法描述。 方法: 用34匹健康的温血马作为研究对象。评估了左侧面部具有清晰解剖标志的6个 (触觉感觉阈值) 和5个 (机械伤害性和热伤害性阈值) 区域。对于另一项研究，10匹马在这些区域中具有2个 (机械伤害性阈值) 或3个 (触觉感觉和热伤害性阈值)。使用线性混合模型进行数据分析。 结果: 所有阈值随年龄增加 (触觉感觉阈值: 0.90g/y (CI = [0.12g; 0.36g]) P =。001; 机械伤害性阈值: 0.25 N/y (CI = [0.13-0.36 N]) P =。000; 热伤害性阈值: 0.2 °C/y (CI = [0.055-0.361]) P = .008)。性别对阈值没有影响 (触觉感觉阈值: P = .1; 机械伤害性阈值: P = .09; 热伤害性阈值: P = .2)。刺激部位影响触觉感觉和机械伤害性阈值 (P = .001和P = .008)，但不影响热伤害性阈值 (P = .9)。剃须对任何阈值均无显著影响 (触觉感觉阈值: P = .06; 机械伤害性阈值: P = .08; 热伤害性阈值: P = .09)。 主要限制: 仅对左侧进行研究，并且在单次上获得测量结果。 结论: 手持式定量感觉测试不需要剃须或修剪来提供可靠的测量。对鼻孔 (触觉感觉阈值) 、颞下颌关节 (机械伤害性阈值) 和眶上孔 (热伤害性阈值) 的刺激导致最一致的阈值。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.