Contrast therapy: Tissue heating and cooling properties within the equine distal limb.
- 作者列表："Haussler KK","Wilde SR","Davis MS","Hess AM","McIlwraith CW
BACKGROUND:Rehabilitation of tendon injuries in horses often involves cryotherapy to reduce inflammation and occasionally tissue heating to increase collagen extensibility. The application of alternating cold and hot (ie contrast therapy) is widely used in human physical therapy; however, its utility in equine rehabilitation is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES:The objectives of this study were to (a) assess if the equipment could achieve therapeutic tissue temperatures (<15 and >40°C) at different tissue depths relative to the digital flexor tendons and (b) evaluate the time-temperature profiles during serial heating and cooling cycles using a contrast therapy device. STUDY DESIGN:In vivo experiment. METHODS:In 4 adult horses with normal forelimb digital flexor tendons, fine-wire temperature probes were placed superficially on the skin and implanted subcutaneously, deep to the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) and deep to the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT). Temperatures were recorded over three complete thermal (hot-cold) cycles. Minimum and maximum temperatures were recorded and the rate of temperature changes and the areas underneath the time-temperature curves (ie thermal load) were calculated. RESULTS:Minimum and maximum tissue temperatures (°C) included: superficial skin [12.6 ± 1.0; 42.4 ± 2.4], subcutaneous tissues [14.1 ± 0.8; 42.3 ± 2.2], deep to the SDFT [15.6 ± 0.8; 41.7 ± 2.6] and deep to DDFT [25.1 ± 2.0; 38.0 ± 3.5]. An initial rapid rate of tissue temperature change between 3.2 and 4.3°C/min occurred within tissues to the depth of the DDFT. Tissue thermal loads during heating ranged from 255 to 607°C*second and from 309 to 780°C*second during tissue cooling, with the lower values noted deep to the DDFT. MAIN LIMITATIONS:Unknown clinical efficacy in diseased tissues. CONCLUSIONS:The applied contrast therapy was consistently able to induce cooling and heating of tissues to the depth of the DDFT.
背景: 马的肌腱损伤的康复通常包括冷冻疗法以减少炎症，偶尔还包括组织加热以增加胶原的延展性。冷热交替 (即对比疗法) 的应用广泛用于人体物理治疗; 然而，其在马康复中的效用在很大程度上是未知的。 目的: 本研究的目的是 (a) 评估设备是否能够在相对于数字屈肌肌腱的不同组织深度处实现治疗组织温度 (<15和> 40 °C)，以及 (b) 使用对比治疗装置评估连续加热和冷却循环期间的时间-温度曲线。 研究设计: 体内实验。 方法: 在4匹正常前肢指屈肌腱的成年马中，将细丝温度探头置于皮肤表面，皮下植入，深达指屈肌腱浅层 (SDFT)，深达指屈肌腱深层 (DDFT)。在三个完整的热 (热-冷) 循环中记录温度。记录最小和最大温度，并计算温度变化率和时间-温度曲线下的面积 (即热负荷)。 结果: 最低和最高组织温度 (℃) 包括: 浅表皮肤 [12.6 ± 1.0; 42.4 ± 2.4]，皮下组织 [14.1 ± 0.8; 42.3 ± 2.2]，深至SDFT [15.6 ± 0.8; 41.7 ± 2.6] 和深至DDFT [25.1 ± 2.0]; 38.0 ± 3.5]。在组织内发生3.2至4.3 °C/min之间的组织温度变化的初始快速速率至DDFT的深度。在加热期间的组织热负荷在255至607 °C * 秒的范围内，并且在组织冷却期间在309至780 °C * 秒的范围内，在DDFT的深处注意到较低的值。 主要局限性: 对病变组织的临床疗效不详。 结论: 应用的对比疗法始终能够诱导组织冷却和加热到DDFT的深度。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.