- 作者列表："Halder SK","Milner R
:Over the past 50 years, intense research effort has taught us a great deal about multiple sclerosis. We know that it is the most common neurological disease affecting the young-middle aged, that it affects two to three times more females than males, and that it is characterized as an autoimmune disease, in which autoreactive T lymphocytes cross the blood-brain barrier, resulting in demyelinating lesions. But despite all the knowledge gained, a key question still remains; what is the initial event that triggers the inflammatory demyelinating process? While most research effort to date has focused on the immune system, more recently, another potential candidate has emerged: hypoxia. Specifically, a growing number of studies have described the presence of hypoxia (both 'virtual' and real) at an early stage of demyelinating lesions, and several groups, including our own, have begun to investigate how manipulation of inspired oxygen levels impacts disease progression. In this review we summarize the findings of these hypoxia studies, and in particular, address three main questions: (i) is the hypoxia found in demyelinating lesions 'virtual' or real; (ii) what causes this hypoxia; and (iii) how does manipulation of inspired oxygen impact disease progression?
: 在过去的50年里，紧张的研究努力教会了我们很多关于多发性硬化症的知识。我们知道它是影响青壮年最常见的神经系统疾病，它影响的女性比男性多2-3倍，它的特征是自身免疫性疾病，自身反应性T淋巴细胞穿过血脑屏障，导致脱髓鞘病变。但是，尽管获得了所有知识，一个关键问题仍然存在; 触发炎性脱髓鞘过程的初始事件是什么？虽然迄今为止大多数研究工作都集中在免疫系统上，但最近又出现了另一个潜在的候选者: 缺氧。具体而言，越来越多的研究已经描述了在脱髓鞘病变的早期阶段存在缺氧 (“虚拟” 和真实的)，并且包括我们自己的几个小组已经开始研究调节吸入氧水平如何影响疾病进展。在这篇综述中，我们总结了这些缺氧研究的发现，特别是解决了三个主要问题 :( i) 在脱髓鞘病变中发现的缺氧是 “虚拟的” 还是真实的; (ii) 是什么导致了这种缺氧; 以及 (iii) 吸入氧的操作如何影响疾病进展？
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.