Smart textiles biotechnology for electrocardiogram monitoring in horses during exercise on treadmill: Validation tests.
- 作者列表："Felici M","Nardelli M","Lanatà A","Sgorbini M","Pasquale Scilingo E","Baragli P
BACKGROUND:There are several bioengineering solutions aimed at improving human health and welfare. Smart electrodes based on textile substrates have met the growing demand for comfort, reliability, and robustness when acquiring physiological signals. OBJECTIVES:Given the importance of good quality electrocardiograms (ECG) in equine sports medicine, this study focuses on the validation of smart textile electrodes to acquire ECG signals in horses during treadmill exercise. STUDY DESIGN:The performance of the smart textile electrodes is compared with standard silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrodes in terms of signal quality. METHODS:Five healthy Standardbred mares were fitted with two identical electronic systems for the simultaneous recording of ECGs during a standardised exercise test (SET) on a treadmill. One system was equipped with smart textile electrodes, whereas the second was equipped with standard Ag/AgCl electrodes. The Ag/AgCl electrodes were positioned on shaved skin with self-adhesive pads, and without (SET1) or with glue (SET2). The textile electrodes were positioned without shaving the skin. The Kurtosis (k) value for each ECG trace recorded was calculated as an index of ECG signal quality. RESULTS:For the textile electrodes, k values were higher, and closer to ideal compared to Ag/AgCl electrodes. The median values of the Signal Quality Indexes (kSQI) were higher for textile compared to Ag/AgCl electrodes. These differences were significant in SET 2 (P < .001), but not in SET 1 (P = .08). MAIN LIMITATIONS:This study was limited to treadmill exercise that did not include a rider or harness. CONCLUSIONS:During treadmill exercise, textile electrodes are a practical solution for collecting good quality ECG traces.
背景: 有几种旨在改善人类健康和福利的生物工程解决方案。基于织物基底的智能电极已经满足了在采集生理信号时对舒适性、可靠性和鲁棒性的日益增长的需求。 目的: 鉴于高质量心电图 (ECG) 在马运动医学中的重要性，本研究侧重于验证智能纺织电极在跑步机运动期间获取马的ECG信号。 研究设计: 在信号质量方面将智能织物电极的性能与标准银/氯化银 (Ag/AgCl) 电极进行比较。 方法: 在跑步机上进行标准化运动试验 (SET) 时，五只健康的标准母马安装了两个相同的电子系统，用于同时记录ecg。一个系统配备有智能织物电极，而第二个系统配备有标准Ag/AgCl电极。将Ag/AgCl电极定位在具有自粘垫的剃须皮肤上，并且不具有 (SET1) 或具有胶水 (SET2)。在不剃毛皮肤的情况下定位织物电极。计算记录的每个ECG迹线的峰度 (k) 值作为ECG信号质量的指标。 结果: 对于织物电极，k值较高，并且与Ag/AgCl电极相比更接近理想。与Ag/AgCl电极相比，纺织品的信号质量指数 (kSQI) 的中值较高。这些差异在组2中是显著的 (P <.001)，但在组1中不是显著的 (P = .08)。 主要限制: 本研究仅限于跑步机运动，不包括骑手或背带。 结论: 在跑台运动中，纺织电极是收集高质量心电图痕迹的实用解决方案。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.