Progression of shallow medial femoral condyle radiographic lucencies in Thoroughbred repository radiographs and their influence on future racing careers.
- 作者列表："Pérez-Nogués M","Derham A","Marmion J","True Baker W
BACKGROUND:Shallow lucencies less than 4 mm deep into the medial femoral condyle (MFC) are frequent in Thoroughbred horses undergoing screening sales radiographs. It is unclear if these shallow defects are precursors to larger cystic lesions or if they are fully developed defects that remodel into a flattened femoral condyle. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate radiological lucencies of the MFC and their progression in size, in a cohort of Thoroughbred horses, ranging from 5 to 18 months of age and to report on the racing careers of these horses compared to their maternal siblings free of stifle pathology. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective cohort. METHODS:Radiographic reports were reviewed to identify cases with MFC lucency. Medical data including age at the time of radiographic sale set, sex, and MFC lucency radiographic measurements were recorded. The data were analysed for changes in lucency morphology. Racing data were collected and analysed for the following 5 years. RESULTS:From 12 938 sales reports reviewed, 3874 horses were found to have radiographic sets available at both weanling and yearling sales. A MFC lucency ≤3 mm in depth was diagnosed in at least one radiographic sales set in 248 horses (6.4%). The right femur was more commonly affected (73.9%) than the left. Radiographic lucencies in the left femur were significantly smaller (P = .02) than lucencies in the right femur. Radiographic lucencies resolved in 6.1% of cases, 3.6% of cases developed into a cyst, 40.7% of cases were unchanged in size, 23.6% of lucencies decreased in size and 8.2% increased in size. Cysts >3 mm deep regressed into smaller lesions accounting for 4.9% of the lucencies, and 12.9% of lucencies developed from a normal or flat medial femoral condyle contour. Horses with a medial femoral condyle lucency had significantly less starts as a 2-year-old vs. their maternal siblings (P < .01). MAIN LIMITATIONS:Data were collected retrospectively. Measurement errors may have occurred due to the measuring tool scale, small size of the defects and/or radiographic position. Treatments between radiographic studies were unknown and could not be accounted for. Observers were not blinded to radiographic sales reports. CONCLUSIONS:Radiographically diagnosed lucencies in the MFC of immature Thoroughbreds have the potential to fully resolve or develop into a cyst. However, most radiographic lucencies do not change in size. Thoroughbreds with MFC lucencies had less starts as 2-year-olds when compared to their maternal siblings free of stifle pathology.
背景: 在接受筛查销售射线照片的纯种马中，股骨内侧髁 (MFC) 深度小于4毫米的浅透明度是常见的。目前还不清楚这些浅缺损是较大囊性病变的前兆，还是完全发育的缺损，重建成扁平的股骨髁。 目的: 在一组5至18个月大的纯种马中，评估MFC的放射学透明度及其在大小上的进展，并报告这些马与其无窒息病理的母亲兄弟姐妹相比的赛车生涯。 研究设计: 回顾性队列。 方法: 对影像学报告进行回顾性分析，以识别具有MFC透明度的病例。记录医学数据，包括放射照相销售时的年龄、性别和MFC亮度放射照相测量。分析数据的亮光形态变化。收集并分析了随后5年的赛车数据。 结果: 从审查的12 938份销售报告中，发现3874匹马在断奶和一岁的销售中都有射线照相装置。在3毫米匹马 (248) 的至少一个放射照相销售组中诊断出MFC亮度深度 ≤ 6.4%。右侧股骨比左侧受累更常见 (73.9%)。与右股骨相比，左股骨的射线照相显示明显较小 (P = .02)。在6.1% 的病例中，射线照相的透明度得到解决，3.6% 的病例发展成囊肿，40.7% 的病例大小没有变化，23.6% 的透明度大小减小，8.2% 的病例大小增加。> 3毫米深的囊肿消退为较小的病变，占4.9% 的透明度，12.9% 的透明度从正常或平坦的股骨内侧髁轮廓发展而来。具有股骨内侧髁透明层的马与它们的母亲兄弟姐妹相比，2岁的开始明显更少 (P <.01)。 主要局限性: 回顾性收集数据。由于测量工具规模、缺陷的小尺寸和/或射线照相位置，可能已经发生测量误差。影像学研究之间的治疗是未知的，并且无法解释。观察者没有对放射照相销售报告不知情。 结论: 未成熟纯种马的MFC中影像学诊断的透明度有可能完全消退或发展成囊肿。然而，大多数射线照相的透明度在大小上没有变化。与没有窒息病理的母系兄弟姐妹相比，具有MFC lucencesis的纯种马在2岁时的起始时间较少。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.