Striatal and cerebellar vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression is disrupted in human DYT1 dystonia.
- 作者列表："Mazere J","Dilharreguy B","Catheline G","Vidailhet M","Deffains M","Vimont D","Ribot B","Barse E","Cif L","Mazoyer B","Langbour N","Pisani A","Allard M","Lamare F","Guehl D","Fernandez P","Burbaud P
:Early-onset torsion dystonia (TOR1A/DYT1) is a devastating hereditary motor disorder whose pathophysiology remains unclear. Studies in transgenic mice suggested abnormal cholinergic transmission in the putamen, but this has not yet been demonstrated in humans. The role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of the disease has also been highlighted but the involvement of the intrinsic cerebellar cholinergic system is unknown. In this study, cholinergic neurons were imaged using PET with 18F-fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol, a radioligand of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Here, we found an age-related decrease in VAChT expression in the posterior putamen and caudate nucleus of DYT1 patients versus matched controls, with low expression in young but not in older patients. In the cerebellar vermis, VAChT expression was also significantly decreased in patients versus controls, but independently of age. Functional connectivity within the motor network studied in MRI and the interregional correlation of VAChT expression studied in PET were also altered in patients. These results show that the cholinergic system is disrupted in the brain of DYT1 patients and is modulated over time through plasticity or compensatory mechanisms.
: 早发型扭转肌张力障碍 (TOR1A/DYT1) 是一种严重的遗传性运动功能障碍的病理生理学尚不明确.对转基因小鼠的研究表明壳核中胆碱能传递异常，但这尚未在人类中得到证实。小脑在该疾病的病理生理学中的作用也已被强调，但内在的小脑胆碱能系统的参与是未知的。在这项研究中，使用18f-氟乙氧基苯磺胺 (囊泡乙酰胆碱转运蛋白 (VAChT) 的放射性配体) 的PET对胆碱能神经元进行成像。在这里，我们发现与匹配的对照相比，DYT1患者的后壳核和尾状核中的VAChT表达与年龄相关，年轻患者低表达，但老年患者不表达。在小脑蚓部，患者与对照组相比，VAChT表达也显著降低，但与年龄无关。MRI中研究的运动网络内的功能连接和PET中研究的VAChT表达的区域间相关性也在患者中改变。这些结果表明，胆碱能系统在DYT1患者的脑中被破坏，并且随着时间的推移通过可塑性或代偿机制进行调节。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.