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Post-operative pain behaviour associated with surgical castration in donkeys (Equus asinus).

驴 (马尾) 手术去势相关的术后疼痛行为。

  • 影响因子:1.86
  • DOI:10.1111/evj.13306
  • 作者列表:"de Oliveira MGC","Luna SPL","Nunes TL","Firmino PR","de Lima AGA","Ferreira J","Trindade PHE","Júnior RAB","de Paula VV
  • 发表时间:2021-03-01
Abstract

BACKGROUND:Recognising pain in donkeys is challenging because they are stoic. OBJECTIVES:To identify the responses of donkeys before and after surgical pain. STUDY DESIGN:Prospective, short-term longitudinal pre- and post-intervention observations. METHODS:Forty adult donkeys underwent surgical castration after sedation with intravenous (IV) xylazine, induction with guaiphenesin/thiopental IV and maintenance of anaesthesia with isoflurane and local anaesthetic blockade. Four hours after recovery from anaesthesia, flunixin meglumine 1.1 mg/kg, dipyrone 10 mg/kg and morphine 0.2 mg/kg IV were administered. Behavioural responses exhibited by the animals housed in individual stalls were recorded in four 30-min videos: before castration (M0), and 3.5-4.0 hours (M1), 5.5-6.0 hours (M2) and 23.5-24.0 hours after recovery from anaesthesia (M3). To exclude the influence of insects, the behaviour of six apparently pain-free donkeys was compared with and without the presence of faeces and urine in the stall. RESULTS:When compared with presurgical baseline behaviours (M0), after surgery (M1) donkeys raised their pelvic limbs more (P = .003). When compared with M1, after analgesia (M2), the median frequencies of ear movements (44 vs 16; P < .001), head shaking (7 vs 1; P < .001), head turning (5 vs 0; P < .001) and lifting of the both limbs (7 vs 0; P = .008) decreased; feeding (0 vs 29; P < .001) and water intake (0 vs 0, range 0-1 vs 0-7; P = .05) increased. The dirty stall increased tail (53 vs 80; P = .03), head (16 vs 30; P = .03) and ear movements (50 vs 78; P = .04). MAIN LIMITATIONS:The dirty stall and presence of insects possibly contributed to the expression of behaviours unrelated to pain. CONCLUSION:Lifting the pelvic limbs was the only specific pain behaviour after castration in donkeys. Analgesia restored appetite and water intake and reduced the frequency of head shaking and turning, ear movement and lifting the limbs. Tail, head and ear movements are unspecific responses related both to pain and a dirty stall, and are confounding factors when pain is assessed in donkeys in the presence of insects.

摘要

背景: 识别驴的疼痛是具有挑战性的,因为它们是坚忍的。 目的: 确定驴在手术疼痛前后的反应。 研究设计: 干预前后的前瞻性、短期纵向观察。 方法: 40头成年驴在静脉 (IV) 甲苯噻嗪镇静、愈创甘油醚/硫喷妥钠IV诱导、异氟醚维持麻醉和局部麻醉阻滞后接受手术去势。麻醉恢复后4小时,给予氟尼辛葡甲胺1.1 mg/kg、安乃近10 mg/kg和吗啡0.2 mg/kgiv。在四个30分钟的视频中记录了圈养在单个隔间中的动物表现出的行为反应: 阉割前 (M0) 和麻醉恢复后3.5-4.0小时 (M1) 、5.5-6.0小时 (M2) 和23.5-24.0小时 (M3)。为了排除昆虫的影响,比较了六只明显无痛的驴在隔间中是否存在粪便和尿液的行为。 结果: 当与术前基线行为 (M0) 相比时,手术后 (M1) 驴提高其骨盆肢体更多 (P = .003)。与M1相比,镇痛后 (M2),耳运动的中位频率 (44 vs 16; P <.001),摇头 (7 vs 1; P <.001),头转向 (5 vs 0; P < .001) 和四肢的提升 (7 vs 0;P = .008) 降低; 摄食 (0 vs 29; P < .001) 和水摄入量 (0 vs 0,范围0-1 vs 0-7; P = .05) 增加。脏失速增加了尾部 (53 vs 80; P = .03) 、头部 (16 vs 30; P = .03) 和耳朵运动 (50 vs 78; P = .04)。 主要限制: 肮脏的失速和昆虫的存在可能导致与疼痛无关的行为的表达。 结论: 抬高骨盆是驴去势后唯一的特殊疼痛行为。镇痛恢复了食欲和水分的摄入,减少了摇头和翻身、耳朵运动和四肢抬高的频率。尾部、头部和耳朵运动是与疼痛和脏的失速相关的非特异性反应,并且是在昆虫存在下评估驴疼痛时的混淆因素。

关键词: 镇痛 阉割 幸福
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