Post-operative pain behaviour associated with surgical castration in donkeys (Equus asinus).
驴 (马尾) 手术去势相关的术后疼痛行为。
- 作者列表："de Oliveira MGC","Luna SPL","Nunes TL","Firmino PR","de Lima AGA","Ferreira J","Trindade PHE","Júnior RAB","de Paula VV
BACKGROUND:Recognising pain in donkeys is challenging because they are stoic. OBJECTIVES:To identify the responses of donkeys before and after surgical pain. STUDY DESIGN:Prospective, short-term longitudinal pre- and post-intervention observations. METHODS:Forty adult donkeys underwent surgical castration after sedation with intravenous (IV) xylazine, induction with guaiphenesin/thiopental IV and maintenance of anaesthesia with isoflurane and local anaesthetic blockade. Four hours after recovery from anaesthesia, flunixin meglumine 1.1 mg/kg, dipyrone 10 mg/kg and morphine 0.2 mg/kg IV were administered. Behavioural responses exhibited by the animals housed in individual stalls were recorded in four 30-min videos: before castration (M0), and 3.5-4.0 hours (M1), 5.5-6.0 hours (M2) and 23.5-24.0 hours after recovery from anaesthesia (M3). To exclude the influence of insects, the behaviour of six apparently pain-free donkeys was compared with and without the presence of faeces and urine in the stall. RESULTS:When compared with presurgical baseline behaviours (M0), after surgery (M1) donkeys raised their pelvic limbs more (P = .003). When compared with M1, after analgesia (M2), the median frequencies of ear movements (44 vs 16; P < .001), head shaking (7 vs 1; P < .001), head turning (5 vs 0; P < .001) and lifting of the both limbs (7 vs 0; P = .008) decreased; feeding (0 vs 29; P < .001) and water intake (0 vs 0, range 0-1 vs 0-7; P = .05) increased. The dirty stall increased tail (53 vs 80; P = .03), head (16 vs 30; P = .03) and ear movements (50 vs 78; P = .04). MAIN LIMITATIONS:The dirty stall and presence of insects possibly contributed to the expression of behaviours unrelated to pain. CONCLUSION:Lifting the pelvic limbs was the only specific pain behaviour after castration in donkeys. Analgesia restored appetite and water intake and reduced the frequency of head shaking and turning, ear movement and lifting the limbs. Tail, head and ear movements are unspecific responses related both to pain and a dirty stall, and are confounding factors when pain is assessed in donkeys in the presence of insects.
背景: 识别驴的疼痛是具有挑战性的，因为它们是坚忍的。 目的: 确定驴在手术疼痛前后的反应。 研究设计: 干预前后的前瞻性、短期纵向观察。 方法: 40头成年驴在静脉 (IV) 甲苯噻嗪镇静、愈创甘油醚/硫喷妥钠IV诱导、异氟醚维持麻醉和局部麻醉阻滞后接受手术去势。麻醉恢复后4小时，给予氟尼辛葡甲胺1.1 mg/kg、安乃近10 mg/kg和吗啡0.2 mg/kgiv。在四个30分钟的视频中记录了圈养在单个隔间中的动物表现出的行为反应: 阉割前 (M0) 和麻醉恢复后3.5-4.0小时 (M1) 、5.5-6.0小时 (M2) 和23.5-24.0小时 (M3)。为了排除昆虫的影响，比较了六只明显无痛的驴在隔间中是否存在粪便和尿液的行为。 结果: 当与术前基线行为 (M0) 相比时，手术后 (M1) 驴提高其骨盆肢体更多 (P = .003)。与M1相比，镇痛后 (M2)，耳运动的中位频率 (44 vs 16; P <.001)，摇头 (7 vs 1; P <.001)，头转向 (5 vs 0; P < .001) 和四肢的提升 (7 vs 0;P = .008) 降低; 摄食 (0 vs 29; P < .001) 和水摄入量 (0 vs 0，范围0-1 vs 0-7; P = .05) 增加。脏失速增加了尾部 (53 vs 80; P = .03) 、头部 (16 vs 30; P = .03) 和耳朵运动 (50 vs 78; P = .04)。 主要限制: 肮脏的失速和昆虫的存在可能导致与疼痛无关的行为的表达。 结论: 抬高骨盆是驴去势后唯一的特殊疼痛行为。镇痛恢复了食欲和水分的摄入，减少了摇头和翻身、耳朵运动和四肢抬高的频率。尾部、头部和耳朵运动是与疼痛和脏的失速相关的非特异性反应，并且是在昆虫存在下评估驴疼痛时的混淆因素。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.