Outcome following repair of 63 sagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx in UK Thoroughbreds using either a triangular or linear screw configuration.
- 作者列表："Findley JA","O'Neill HD","Bladon BM
BACKGROUND:A triangular screw configuration has been suggested as preferable for repair of sagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx. OBJECTIVE:To assess the outcome of a triangular screw construct for repair of incomplete and complete minimally displaced proximal phalanx fractures under standing sedation in a population of Thoroughbred racehorses, compared with a cohort repaired using a linear screw configuration. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study. METHODS:Medical records and radiographs were accessed to garner clinical data. Date of return to racing was determined from www.racingpost.com. Survival data were compared using log-rank test. RESULTS:Sixty-two horses with one horse having two separate fractures. Fifty-four fractures were repaired using triangular screw configuration, 10 with a linear screw configuration. 81% (43/53) of horses with triangular repair returned to racing at a median of 289 days (161-482 days), 70% (7/10) horses with linear screws returned to racing at a median of 351 days (230-815 days). MAIN LIMITATIONS:A limited number of horses underwent conventional (linear) screw placement. CONCLUSION:A triangular screw configuration placed in the standing sedated horse is an effective way to repair incomplete and complete minimally displaced proximal phalanx fractures. The rate of return to racing was excellent with a low rate of complications.
背景: 对于近端指骨矢状骨折的修复，建议采用三角螺钉结构。 目的: 与使用线性螺钉结构修复的队列相比，评估三角螺钉结构在站立镇静下修复不完整和完全最小移位的近端指骨骨折的结果。 研究设计: 回顾性队列研究。 方法: 查阅病历和x线片以获取临床资料。重返赛场的日期由www.racingpost.com决定。使用时序检验比较生存数据。 结果: 62匹马，1匹马有2个独立的骨折。使用三角螺钉配置修复54个骨折，使用线性螺钉配置修复10个骨折。有三角修复的马匹有81% (43/53) 以289天 (161-482天) 的中位数返回比赛，有70% (7/10) 匹有线性螺钉的马匹以351天 (230-815天) 的中位数返回比赛。 主要限制: 有限数量的马接受常规 (线性) 螺钉放置。 结论: 放置于站立镇静马的三角螺钉构型是修复不完全和完全的最小移位的近端指骨骨折的有效方法。重返赛车的速度非常好，并发症发生率低。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.