- 作者列表："Al Naem M","Litzke LF","Failing K","Burk J","Röcken M
BACKGROUND:No kinetic data on hoof loading in laminitic horses are available, despite their importance for optimising supportive shoeing therapies. OBJECTIVES:To quantify the load distribution pattern in laminitic and sound horses. STUDY DESIGN:Controlled observational study. METHODS:Fifty-four sound and laminitic horses were assigned to three groups: control group (sound horses), group 1 (G1) horses with acute laminitis, evaluated immediately after acute clinical signs subsided, and group 2 (G2) horses that had been free of acute laminitis signs for 6-12 weeks. Measurements on both forelimbs in barefoot condition were performed during walk using the Hoof™ System. Kinetic parameters were recorded and compared between hoof regions and groups using covariance analyses and t tests (P < .05). RESULTS:Peak loading in the toe region occurred during midstance phase in control group, but during break-over in laminitic horses. This is reflected by the time to peak vertical force in the toe, which was significantly shorter in the control group compared to laminitic horses (G1 and G2) (76% ± 6% vs 89% ± 9 [P = .002], 86% ± 7 [P = .001] of stance duration respectively). The relative vertical force in the toe in the control group (46% ± 7%) was significantly higher compared to laminitic horses (G1: 29% ± 9% [P = .001]; G2: 32% ± 10% [P = .003]). The main shift of the load occurred between toe and middle hoof regions in laminitic horses as compared with the control group. No significant differences were found between G1 and G2. MAIN LIMITATIONS:Measurements were not obtained in horses with acute laminitis on admission, to avoid risk of further damage to the lamellae. CONCLUSIONS:Supportive therapy in laminitis should focus on supporting both caudal and middle hoof areas to decrease the peak pressure in these regions, and ease break-over during which the maximal loading of the toe occurs.
背景: 没有关于板层马蹄负荷的动力学数据，尽管它们对于优化支持性鞋垫疗法很重要。 目的: 量化板层和健全马的负荷分布模式。 研究设计: 对照观察性研究。 方法: 将54匹音马和椎板马分为三组: 对照组 (音马) 、患有急性椎板炎的组1 (G1) 马，在急性临床体征消退后立即进行评估，和组2 (G2) 6-12周无急性椎板炎体征的马。在赤脚条件下的两个前肢的测量在行走期间使用蹄进行。™系统。使用协方差分析和t检验记录和比较蹄区和组之间的动力学参数 (P <.05)。 结果: 在对照组中，趾区的峰值负荷发生在中间阶段，但在椎板型马中，峰值负荷发生在休息期间。这通过在脚趾中达到峰值垂直力的时间来反映，该时间在对照组中与椎板马 (G1和G2) 相比显著更短 (76% ± 6% vs 89% ± 9 [P =。002]，86% ± 7 [P =。001] 的姿态持续时间分别)。对照组中脚趾的相对垂直力 (46% ± 7%) 显著高于椎板型马 (G1: 29% ± 9% [P = .001]; G2: 32% ± 10% [P = .003])。与对照组相比，椎板型马的主要负荷发生在趾和中蹄区域之间。G1和g2之间没有发现显著差异。 主要限制: 入院时未对患有急性椎板炎的马进行测量，以避免对椎板进一步损害的风险。 结论: 椎板炎的支持治疗应侧重于支持尾部和中蹄区域，以降低这些区域的峰值压力，并缓解趾最大负荷期间的破裂。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.