Demography, preventative healthcare and reason for relinquishment of donkeys to an equine charity in the UK (2013-2015).
- 作者列表："Fernandez EB","De Blas Giral I","Thiemann AK","Vázquez Bringas FJ
BACKGROUND:In the UK, there are thousands of donkeys being cared for by charities; however, little is known about the reasons for relinquishment or their previous health status, with even less information available in published literature. Such information could help to identify factors contributing to poor equine welfare and guide the development of appropriate educational resources. OBJECTIVES:To describe the characteristics of the relinquished donkeys and to better understand the current preventative healthcare status of donkeys relinquished into The Donkey Sanctuary. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional observational survey. METHODS:A total of 596 donkeys were admitted during a 30-month period. Each had a health check at arrival; and previous management information was provided by the owner. Data were retrieved from The Donkey Sanctuary database, inputted into a specific Microsoft Access 2016 database then exported for analysis in IBM SPSS 19.0 for Windows® . Mules and ponies were excluded from the study. RESULTS:Many donkeys arrived without a valid passport (32.3%) or microchip (49.7%). Only 23.2% were fully protected against influenza and tetanus and 21.0% of the donkeys had no previous anthelmintic treatment history. Geriatric donkeys often suffered from moderate to severe dental disease in need of advanced treatment, and 43.9% had received no dental treatment within the last year. Overall 26.3% of donkeys were classed as overweight and 8.6% were obese. The median time since the last hoof trim was 10 weeks. MAIN LIMITATION:The health status of the studied donkeys may have been affected by the reasons for relinquishment, and associations require further investigation. CONCLUSIONS:This study highlights the need for improving preventative healthcare in donkeys to ensure better welfare within the population.
背景: 在英国，有成千上万的驴被慈善机构照顾; 然而，很少有人知道放弃的原因或他们以前的健康状况，在出版的文献中甚至更少的信息。这些信息有助于确定导致马福利差的因素，并指导开发适当的教育资源。 目的: 描述被放弃的驴的特征，并更好地理解被放弃进入驴保护区的驴的预防保健现状。 研究设计: 横断面观察调查。 方法: 在30个月期间，共收治596头驴。每个人都在到达时进行健康检查; 以前的管理信息由所有者提供。从Donkey Sanctuary数据库中检索数据，输入到特定的Microsoft Access 2016数据库中，然后在IBM SPSS 19.0 for Windows中导出进行分析®没有。骡子和小马被排除在研究之外。 结果: 许多驴在没有有效护照 (32.3%) 或芯片 (49.7%) 的情况下到达。只有23.2% 的驴完全免受流感和破伤风的侵害，21.0% 的驴以前没有驱虫治疗史。老年驴常患中度至重度牙病，需要接受晚期治疗，43.9% 的驴在最近一年内没有接受过牙科治疗。总体上，26.3% 的驴被归类为超重，8.6% 的驴为肥胖。自上次蹄修剪以来的中位时间为10周。 主要限制: 被研究的驴的健康状况可能受到放弃原因的影响，并且关联需要进一步调查。 结论: 这项研究强调了改善驴预防性医疗保健的必要性，以确保人群中更好的福利。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.