Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability of the Functional Gait Assessment in older Brazilian adults.
- 作者列表："Kirkwood RN","Batista NCL","Marques LBF","de Melo Ocarino J","Neves LLA","de Souza Moreira B
BACKGROUND:The Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) is a standardized instrument for assessing postural stability during various walking tasks. It was developed to increase the reliability and to decrease the potential ceiling effect observed with the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI). OBJECTIVE:To translate and cross-culturally adapt the FGA into Portuguese-Brazilian, and to evaluate its reliability in community-dwelling Brazilian older adults. METHODS:The process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation followed the recommendations of international guidelines. The pre-final version was applied to a sample of 55 older adults of both sexes living independently in the community. For the assessment of reliability (i.e. inter- and intra-rater reliability, standard error of measurement (SEM), and internal consistency), 70 older adults aged 60-87 years were evaluated. RESULTS:There was a conceptual equivalence between the original and the translated versions. All FGA items that used measurements in inches and feet were modified to use matching values in centimeters to reflect the measurement unit used in Brazil. The FGA-Brazil showed excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability (ICC2,1 > 0.90), low SEM (ranging from 1.03 to 1.52), and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.858). CONCLUSION:The FGA-Brazil is a semantically and linguistically valid and reliable instrument to assess walking balance among community-dwelling older adults.
背景: 功能性步态评估 (FGA) 是评估各种步行任务中姿势稳定性的标准化工具。它是为了增加可靠性和减少动态步态指数 (DGI) 观察到的潜在天花板效应而开发的。 目的: 将FGA翻译成葡萄牙语-巴西语并进行跨文化改编，并评估其在社区居住的巴西老年人中的可靠性。 方法: 翻译和跨文化适应过程遵循国际指南的建议。最终前版本适用于社区中独立生活的55名男女老年人的样本。对于可靠性的评估 (即对70名60-87岁的老年人进行了评估。 结果: 原文和译文在概念上是等价的。所有使用英寸和英尺测量的FGA项目都被修改为使用以厘米为单位的匹配值来反映巴西使用的测量单位。FGA-巴西表现出优异的评分者间和内部可靠性 (ICC2，1> 0.90) 、低SEM (范围从1.03到1.52) 和良好的内部一致性 (Cronbach's α = 0.858)。 结论: FGA-巴西是一个在语义和语言上有效和可靠的工具来评估社区老年人的步行平衡。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.