Objectively measured movement asymmetry in yearling Standardbred trotters.
- 作者列表："Kallerud AS","Fjordbakk CT","Hendrickson EHS","Persson-Sjodin E","Hammarberg M","Rhodin M","Hernlund E
BACKGROUND:Lameness evaluation of Standardbred trotters can be challenging due to discrepancies in observed movement asymmetry between in-hand and track exercise, and between different trotting speeds. There are few studies on objective measurement of movement in Standardbreds, and little knowledge regarding biological variation and clinical significance of measured movement asymmetry in this breed. OBJECTIVES:To quantify the prevalence and magnitude of objectively measured movement asymmetry in young Standardbred trotters, and identify associations with trainer, sex, height, track type and in-hand measurement prior to or after track trials. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional, observational study. METHODS:A total of 114 Standardbred yearlings were evaluated with a wireless inertial sensor system during trot in-hand and when driven on a track. After exclusions relating to lameness or technical difficulties, 103 horses were included in the study; 77 were evaluated in-hand and on the track, 24 only in-hand and 2 only on the track. RESULTS:Front and/or hindlimb parameters were above asymmetry thresholds previously established for other breeds during in-hand trials for 94 (93%) horses and during track trials for 74 (94%) horses. Most horses showed mild asymmetry. A minority of horses (20%) switched side of the asymmetry for one or more parameters between in-hand and track trials. Mixed model analyses revealed no significant effects of trial mode (in-hand or track trial, in-hand trial pre- or post-track trial, straight or oval track), trainer or horse height. Females had a significant but small reduction in asymmetry in one front limb parameter (HDmax ) compared with males (1.7 mm, 95% CI 0.18-3.28, P = .03). MAIN LIMITATIONS:High data variability, reflected in large trial standard deviations, relating mainly to a lack of horse compliance. CONCLUSIONS:A high proportion of Standardbred yearlings showed movement asymmetries. There was no group-level effect between in-hand and track trials, however, considerable individual variation was observed.
背景: 由于观察到的手和轨道运动之间以及不同小跑速度之间的运动不对称性存在差异，标准小跑的跛行评估可能具有挑战性。关于标准品种中运动的客观测量的研究很少，关于该品种中测量的运动不对称性的生物学变异和临床意义的知识也很少。 目的: 量化客观测量的年轻标准马蹄运动不对称性的患病率和幅度，并在跟踪试验之前或之后确定与训练者、性别、身高、轨迹类型和手动测量的关联。 研究设计: 横断面观察性研究。 方法: 用无线惯性传感器系统对总共114名标准的一岁儿童进行了手背小跑和在轨道上行驶的评估。在排除与跛行或技术困难有关的情况后，103匹马被纳入研究; 77匹马在手中和赛道上进行评估，24匹仅在手中和2匹仅在赛道上进行评估。 结果: 在对94 (93%) 匹马的手抓试验期间和在对74 (94%) 匹马的跟踪试验期间，前肢和/或后肢参数高于先前为其他品种建立的不对称阈值。大多数马表现出轻度不对称。少数马 (20%) 在手握试验和跟踪试验之间针对一个或多个参数切换不对称的一侧。混合模型分析显示，试验模式 (手或径赛试验、径赛前或后试验、直线或椭圆形径赛) 、训练师或马的身高无显著影响。与男性相比，女性在一个前肢参数 (HDmax) 中的不对称性显著但较小的降低 (1.7毫米，95% CI 0.18-3.28，P = .03)。 主要限制: 高数据变异性，反映在较大的试验标准偏差中，主要与缺乏依从性有关。 结论: 高比例的标准幼年期动物表现出运动不对称性。在手试验和跟踪试验之间没有群体水平效应，然而，观察到相当大的个体差异。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.