- 作者列表："Delvescovo B","Mullen KR","Eicker SW","Ivanek R","Ainsworth DM
BACKGROUND:Previously we described a clustering of dysphagic foal cases on a Pennsylvania (PA) Standardbred farm which was associated with exposure of pregnant mares to high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the well water. The effect of dysphagia on future athleticism was uncertain. OBJECTIVES:To determine if, as adults, dysphagic foals were less likely to race and if athleticism (age of first race, Speed Index and Earnings Per Start Index) differed from that of healthy foals that raced as adults. STUDY DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. METHODS:All foals born during the study period (2014-2017) on the affected PA or an unaffected New York (NY) farm with the same proprietor were eligible for inclusion in the study. Foals with dysphagia attributed to causes other than PAH environmental exposure were excluded. The proportion of foals from both farms that raced, their age of first race, Earnings Per Start Index and Speed Index were compared between the dysphagic and normal foals using Chi-Square and Wilcoxon Rank Sum Tests. Significance level was P < .05. RESULTS:A total of 116 foals met the inclusion criteria. No significant difference was found in the percentages of foals that raced from each farm: On the PA farm, 54% of healthy and 72% of dysphagic foals raced; 70% of healthy NY farm foals raced. Median (interquartile range) age of first race, Earnings Per Start Index or Speed Index for dysphagic foals (2 years (2, 2); 57 (49, 60); 60 (45, 66) was not different from those of healthy foals from both farms (2 years (2, 3); 55 (39, 78)) or the PA farm (2 years (2, 2); 61(24, 73); 68 (57, 85)). All P > .05. MAIN LIMITATIONS:Small sample size and unique type of dysphagia. CONCLUSIONS:The athleticism of formerly dysphagic foals does not appear to be negatively impacted compared with normal foals as measured by age of first race, Earnings Per Start Index and Speed Index.
背景: 以前我们描述了宾夕法尼亚 (PA) 标准农场的一组吞咽困难的小马驹病例，这与怀孕的母马暴露于井水中高浓度的多环芳烃 (PAHs) 有关。吞咽困难对未来运动能力的影响尚不确定。 目的: 确定成年后，运动障碍小马驹是否不太可能参加比赛，以及运动能力 (第一次比赛的年龄、速度指数和每次起跑的收入指数) 是否不同于成年后参加比赛的健康小马驹。 研究设计: 前瞻性队列研究。 方法: 在研究期间 (2014-2017) 在受影响的PA或未受影响的纽约 (NY) 农场出生的具有相同所有者的所有马驹都有资格纳入研究。排除因PAH环境暴露以外的原因导致吞咽困难的马驹。使用卡方检验和Wilcoxon秩和检验，比较了两个农场中参加比赛的小马驹的比例、第一次比赛的年龄、每次起跑指数和速度指数。显著性水平为P <.05。 结果: 共有116只马驹符合纳入标准。在每个农场比赛的马驹百分比中没有发现显著差异: 在PA农场，54% 的健康马驹和72% 的烦躁马驹比赛; 70% 的健康NY农场马驹比赛。第一个种族的中位数 (四分位距) 年龄，每开始指数的收入或速度指数 (2年 (2,2); 57 (49,60); 60 (45,66) 与来自两个农场的健康马驹 (2年 (2，3);55 (39,78)) 或PA农场 (2年 (2,2); 61 (24,73); 68 (57,85))。所有P> .05。 主要局限: 样本量小，吞咽困难类型独特。 结论: 与正常马驹相比，以第一种族年龄、每次起跑收入指数和速度指数衡量，以前运动障碍马驹的运动能力似乎没有受到负面影响。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.