Clinical magnetic resonance image quality of the equine foot is significantly influenced by acquisition system.
- 作者列表："Byrne CA","Marshall JF","Voute LC
BACKGROUND:Investigation of image quality in clinical equine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may optimise diagnostic value. OBJECTIVES:To assess the influence of field strength and anaesthesia on image quality in MR imaging of the equine foot in a clinical context. STUDY DESIGN:Analytical clinical study. METHODS:Fifteen equine foot studies (five studies per system) were randomly selected from the clinical databases of three MR imaging systems: low-field standing (LF St), low-field anaesthetised (LF GA) and high-field anaesthetised (HF GA). Ten experienced observers graded image quality for entire studies and seven clinically important anatomical structures within the foot (briefly, grade 1: textbook quality, grade 2: high diagnostic quality, grade 3: satisfactory diagnostic quality, grade 4: non-diagnostic). Statistical analysis assessed the effect of anaesthesia and field strength using a combination of the Pearson chi-square test or Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS:There was no difference in the proportion of entire studies of diagnostic quality between LF St (90%, 95% CI 78%-97%) and LF GA (88%, 76-95%, P = .7). No differences were evident in the proportion of diagnostic studies or median image quality gradings between LF St and LF GA when assessing individual anatomical structures (both groups all median grades = 3). There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of entire studies of diagnostic quality between LF GA and HF GA (100%, 95% CI lower bound 94%, P = .03). There were statistically significant differences in median image quality gradings between LF GA (all median grades = 3) and HF GA (median grades = 1 (5/7 structures) or 2 (2/7 structures) for all individual anatomical structures (all P < .001). The reasons reported for reduced image quality differed between systems. MAIN LIMITATIONS:Randomised selection of cases from clinical databases. Individual observer preferences may influence image quality assessment. CONCLUSIONS:Field strength is a more important influencer of image quality than anaesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging of the equine foot in clinical patients.
背景: 临床马磁共振 (MR) 成像中图像质量的研究可能优化诊断价值。 目的: 在临床背景下，评估电场强度和麻醉对马足MR成像图像质量的影响。 研究设计: 分析性临床研究。 方法: 从三种MR成像系统的临床数据库中随机选择15项马足研究 (每个系统5项研究): 低场站立 (LF St) 、低场麻醉 (LF GA) 和高场麻醉 (HF GA)。10名经验丰富的观察者对整个研究和足部内的7个临床重要解剖结构进行了图像质量分级 (简而言之，1级: 教科书质量，2级: 高诊断质量，3级: 令人满意的诊断质量，4级: 非诊断)。统计学分析使用Pearson卡方检验或Fisher精确检验与Mann-Whitney检验的组合来评估麻醉和场强的效果。 结果: LF St (90%，95% CI 78%-97%) 和LF GA (88%，76-95%，P = .7) 之间诊断质量的整个研究的比例没有差异。在评估个体解剖结构时，LF St和LF GA之间的诊断研究或中值图像质量等级的比例没有明显差异 (两组均中值等级 = 3)。LF GA和HF GA之间诊断质量的整个研究的比例存在统计学显著差异 (100%，95% CI下限94%，P = .03)。对于所有个体解剖结构，LF GA (所有中值等级 = 3) 和HF GA (中值等级 = 1 (5/7个结构) 或2 (2/7个结构)) 之间的中值图像质量等级存在统计学显著差异 (所有P <.001)。报告的图像质量降低的原因因系统而异。 主要局限性: 从临床数据库中随机选择病例。个体观察者偏好可能影响图像质量评估。 结论: 在临床患者的马足磁共振成像中，场强是比麻醉更重要的影响图像质量的因素。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.