Venous blood gas parameters, electrolytes, glucose and lactate concentration in sick neonatal foals: Direct venipuncture versus push-pull technique.
- 作者列表："Del Prete C","Lanci A","Cocchia N","Freccero F","Di Maio C","Castagnetti C","Mariella J","Micieli F
BACKGROUND:Blood collection by indwelling intravenous catheter (IVC) avoids repeated venipuncture, which could cause thrombophlebitis risk, anxiety and pain in patients. OBJECTIVES:To compare blood gas parameters, electrolytes, glucose, lactate and haematocrit concentration obtained from venous blood samples collected via a jugular IVC by push-pull (PP) technique to those obtained by venipuncture in hospitalised foals, at the time of catheter placement (T0) and 24 hours after the beginning of intravenous therapy (T24). STUDY DESIGN:Prospective observational study. METHODS:Paired blood samples were drawn from hospitalised foals at T0 and T24. In each foal, one venous blood sample was collected via IVC by the following PP technique: 2.4 mL of blood was aspirated and immediately reinfused through the catheter three times consecutively, then 1 mL of blood was collected using a 1 mL heparinised syringe. Thereafter, another sample was collected by direct venipuncture of the contralateral jugular vein, with an identical 1 mL heparinised syringe, with a 1-inch, 20-G needle. All samples were analysed with an automated blood gas analyser within 10 minutes of collection. The agreement between the two techniques was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS:The level of agreement of blood gas values obtained by the two different techniques was high with very small bias and clinically acceptable ICC (>0.907 at T0; >0.794 at T24) for all variables, except for haematocrit (bias -3.52 at T0; -2.44 at T24) and PvO2 at T0 and T24 (ICC 0.669 and 0.733, respectively). MAIN LIMITATIONS:Potential sub-clinical catheter-related complications were not investigated by ultrasound or bacterial culture of the catheter; short duration of the study. CONCLUSIONS:PP technique appears to be acceptable for collection of blood samples for venous blood gas parameters, as well as electrolytes, glucose and lactate in sick neonatal foals.
背景: 通过留置静脉导管 (IVC) 采血避免了重复静脉穿刺，这可能导致患者血栓性静脉炎的风险、焦虑和疼痛。 目的: 在导管放置时 (T0)，将通过颈静脉下腔静脉穿刺 (push-pull) 技术采集的静脉血样本的血气参数、电解质、葡萄糖、乳酸和血细胞比容浓度与住院小马驹静脉穿刺获得的血气参数、电解质、葡萄糖、乳酸和血细胞比容浓度进行比较。和静脉治疗开始后24小时 (T24)。 研究设计: 前瞻性观察研究。 方法: 在T0和t24时从住院的马驹中抽取配对血液样本。在每个小马驹中，通过以下PP技术通过IVC收集一个静脉血样品: 抽吸2.4毫升血液并立即通过导管连续三次重新输注，然后使用1 ml肝素化注射器收集1毫升血液。此后，通过对侧颈静脉的直接静脉穿刺收集另一样品，使用相同的毫升肝素化注射器，使用1英寸20g针头。在收集10分钟内用自动血气分析仪分析所有样品。通过Bland-Altman分析和组内相关系数 (ICC) 评估两种技术之间的一致性。 结果: 两种不同技术获得的血气值的一致性水平较高，偏倚非常小，临床上可接受的ICC (T0时> 0.907; T24时> 0.794)，所有变量除外血细胞比容 (T0时偏倚-3.52; T24时-2.44) 和PvO2在T0和T24(分别为ICC 0.669和0.733)。 主要局限性: 潜在的亚临床导管相关并发症未通过超声或导管细菌培养进行研究; 研究持续时间短。 结论: PP技术似乎可用于收集静脉血气参数的血液样本，以及患病新生儿小马驹的电解质，葡萄糖和乳酸。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.