Smartphone Thermal Imaging in the Detection of Testicular Ischemia.
- 作者列表："Brooks JP","Brooks JM","Seals T
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate smartphone thermal imaging as a point of care test in the detection of testicular ischemia. Thermal imaging detects the infrared (heat) pattern of an object and the technology is now available as an inexpensive attachment to smartphones. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Smartphone thermal imaging was studied as a point-of-care diagnostic test for testicular ischemia in an IACUC approved study that prioritized survival of all animal subjects. Thirty canines weighing over 12 kg were observed during elective neuter procedures with consent from owners. Randomization determined ligation of the right vs left spermatic cord. With both testicles remaining in the scrotum, blinded inspection was performed with a FLIR ONE Pro thermal imaging camera for smartphone use. The bilateral orchiectomy procedures were then completed as planned. RESULTS:Within 11 minutes of ligation of the randomized spermatic cord, an obvious change in the thermal imaging pattern allowed for the correct diagnosis of the ischemic testicle in 30/30 (100%) of subjects in a blinded fashion. Temperature differences between testicles at the time of ischemia diagnosis ranged from 0.7°C to 3.7°C with an average difference of 1.79°C lower in the ischemic testicle (95% CI: [1.50, 2.08]). A thermal imaging evaluation of the testicles takes 30 seconds to perform. CONCLUSION:Smartphone thermal imaging correctly diagnosed testicular ischemia in 100% of animal subjects in a blinded fashion. The clinical utility of this emerging point-of-care technique in the evaluation of testicular torsion is currently unknown.
目的: 评价智能手机热成像作为一种即时检测技术在检测睾丸缺血中的应用。热成像检测物体的红外 (热) 图案，并且该技术现在可用作智能手机的廉价附件。 材料和方法: 在IACUC批准的研究中，智能手机热成像作为睾丸缺血的即时诊断测试进行研究，该研究优先考虑所有动物受试者的存活。在主人同意的情况下，在选择性绝育手术中观察到30只体重超过12千克磅的犬科动物。随机化确定了右精索与左精索的结扎。由于两个睾丸都留在阴囊中，使用FLIR ONE Pro热成像相机进行盲检，用于智能手机。然后按照计划完成双侧睾丸切除术。 结果: 在随机精索结扎的11分钟内，热成像模式的明显变化使得30/30 (100%) 的受试者以盲法正确诊断缺血睾丸。在缺血诊断时，睾丸之间的温度差异范围为0.7 ℃ 至3.7 ℃，缺血性睾丸的平均差异为1.79 ℃ (95% CI: [1.50，2.08])。睾丸的热成像评估需要30秒来执行。 结论: 智能手机热成像以盲法正确诊断了100% 动物受试者的睾丸缺血。这种新兴的即时技术在睾丸扭转评估中的临床应用目前尚不清楚。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.