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Giant African snail genomes provide insights into molluscan whole-genome duplication and aquatic-terrestrial transition.

巨型非洲蜗牛基因组为软体动物全基因组复制和水生-陆生转换提供了见解。

  • 影响因子:7.01
  • DOI:10.1111/1755-0998.13261
  • 作者列表:"Liu C","Ren Y","Li Z","Hu Q","Yin L","Wang H","Qiao X","Zhang Y","Xing L","Xi Y","Jiang F","Wang S","Huang C","Liu B","Liu H","Wan F","Qian W","Fan W
  • 发表时间:2021-02-01
Abstract

:Whole-genome duplication (WGD), contributing to evolutionary diversity and environmental adaptability, has been observed across a wide variety of eukaryotic groups, but not in molluscs. Molluscs are the second largest animal phylum in terms of species numbers, and among the organisms that have successfully adapted to the nonmarine realm through aquatic-terrestrial (A-T) transition. We assembled a chromosome-level reference genome for Achatina immaculata, a globally invasive species, and compared the genomes of two giant African snails (A. immaculata and Achatina fulica) to other available mollusc genomes. Macrosynteny, colinearity blocks, Ks peak and Hox gene clusters collectively suggested a WGD event in the two snails. The estimated WGD timing (~70 million years ago) was close to the speciation age of the Sigmurethra-Orthurethra (within Stylommatophora) lineage and the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) mass extinction, indicating that the WGD may have been a common event shared by all Sigmurethra-Orthurethra species and conferred ecological adaptability allowing survival after the K-T extinction event. Furthermore, the adaptive mechanism of WGD in terrestrial ecosystems was confirmed by the presence of gene families related to the respiration, aestivation and immune defence. Several mucus-related gene families expanded early in the Stylommatophora lineage, and the haemocyanin and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase families doubled during WGD, and zinc metalloproteinase genes were highly tandemly duplicated after WGD. This evidence suggests that although WGD may not have been the direct driver of the A-T transition, it played an important part in the terrestrial adaptation of giant African snails.

摘要

: 全基因组复制 (WGD) 有助于进化多样性和环境适应性,已在各种真核生物群体中观察到,但在软体动物中没有。就物种数量而言,软体动物是第二大动物门,也是通过水生-陆生 (a-t) 过渡成功适应非海洋领域的生物之一。我们组装了一个全球入侵物种原木虫 (Achatina immaculata) 的染色体水平参考基因组,并将两种巨大的非洲蜗牛 (a.immaculata和Achatina fulica) 的基因组与其他可用的软体动物基因组进行了比较。巨合子、共线性阻滞、Ks峰和Hox基因簇共同暗示了两种蜗牛中的WGD事件。估计的WGD时间 (~ 7000万年前) 接近于西格穆拉-正尿道 (在柱花草内) 谱系的物种形成年龄和白垩纪-第三纪 (k-t) 大灭绝,表明WGD可能是所有Sigmurethra-orthorus物种共有的共同事件,并赋予生态适应性,允许在k-t灭绝事件后存活。此外,WGD在陆地生态系统中的适应机制还被与呼吸、免疫和免疫防御相关的基因家族的存在所证实。几个粘液相关基因家族在柱花草谱系早期扩增,血蓝蛋白和磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧激酶家族在WGD期间加倍,锌金属蛋白酶基因在WGD后高度重复。这一证据表明,尽管WGD可能不是a-t转变的直接驱动力,但它在巨型非洲蜗牛的陆地适应中发挥了重要作用。

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