Chromosome level assembly reveals a unique immune gene organization and signatures of evolution in the common pheasant.
- 作者列表："He C","Zhao L","Xiao L","Xu K","Ding J","Zhou H","Zheng Y","Han C","Akinyemi F","Luo H","Yang L","Luo L","Yuan H","Lu X","Meng H
:The common pheasant Phasianus colchicus, belonging to the order Galliformes and family Phasianidae, is the most widespread species. Despite a long history of captivity, the domestication of this bird is still at a preliminary stage. Recently, the demand for accelerating its transformation to poultry for meat and egg production has been increasing. In this study, we assembled high quality, chromosome scale genome of the common pheasant by using PacBio long reads, next-generation short reads, and Hi-C technology. The primary assembly has contig N50 size of 1.33 Mb and scaffold N50 size of 59.46 Mb, with a total size of 0.99 Gb, resolving most macrochromosomes into single scaffolds. A total of 23,058 genes and 10.71 Mb interspersed repeats were identified, constituting 30.31% and 10.71% of the common pheasant genome, respectively. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that the common pheasant shared common ancestors with turkey about 24.7-34.5 million years ago (Ma). Rapidly evolved gene families, as well as branch-specific positively selected genes, indicate that calcium-related genes are potentially related to the adaptive and evolutionary change of the common pheasant. Interestingly, we found that the common pheasant has a unique major histocompatibility complex B locus (MHC-B) structure: three major inversions occurred in the sequence compared with chicken MHC-B. Furthermore, we detected signals of selection in five breeds of domestic common pheasant, several of which are production-oriented.
: 常见的野山鱼秋水仙，属于g目和pha科，是分布最广的物种。尽管饲养历史悠久，但这只鸟的驯化仍处于初步阶段。最近，加快其向禽肉和蛋生产的转化的需求一直在增加。在这项研究中，我们利用PacBio长读、下一代短读和Hi-C技术组装了普通野鸡的高质量染色体规模基因组。初级组装体的contig N50大小为1.33 Mb，支架N50大小为59.46 Mb，总大小为0.99 Gb，将大多数宏染色体解析为单个支架。鉴定了总共23,058个基因和10.71个Mb穿插重复，分别构成普通野鸡基因组的30.31% 和10.71%。我们的系统发育分析发现，大约2470-3450万年前 (Ma)，普通野鸡与土耳其有着共同的祖先。快速进化的基因家族，以及分支特异性的阳性选择基因，表明与钙相关的基因与普通野鸡的适应性和进化变化潜在相关。有趣的是，我们发现普通野鸡具有独特的主要组织相容性复合体B基因座 (mhc-b) 结构: 与鸡mhc-b相比，序列中发生了三种主要倒位。此外，我们还检测了国内常见野鸡的五个品种的选择信号，其中几个品种是生产导向的。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.