Whole genome sequencing of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) provide novel insights into their evolution and speciation.
- 作者列表："Jian J","Yang L","Gan X","Wu B","Gao L","Zeng H","Wang X","Liang Z","Wang Y","Fang L","Li J","Jiang S","Du K","Fu B","Bai M","Chen M","Fang X","Liu H","He S
:The edible silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis), which are two of the "Four Domesticated Fish" of China, are cultivated intensively worldwide. Here, we constructed 837- and 845-Mb draft genome assemblies for the silver carp and the bighead carp, respectively, including 24,571 and 24,229 annotated protein-coding genes. Genetic maps, anchoring 71.7% and 83.8% of all scaffolds, were obtained for the silver and bighead carp, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the bighead carp formed a clade with the silver carp, with an estimated divergence time of 3.6 million years ago; the time of divergence between the silver carp and zebrafish was 50.7 million years ago. An East Asian cyprinid genome-specific chromosome fusion took place ~9.2 million years after this clade diverged from the clade containing the common carp and Sinocyclocheilus. KEGG and GO analyses indicated that the expanded gene families in the silver and bighead carp were associated with diseases, the immune system and environmental adaptations. Genomic regions differentiating the silver and bighead carp populations were detected based on the whole-genome sequences of 42 individuals. Genes associated with the divergent regions were associated with reproductive system development and the development of primary female sexual characteristics. Thus, our results provided a novel systematic genomic analysis of the East Asian cyprinids, as well as the evolution and speciation of the silver carp and bighead carp.
: 我国 “四种家养鱼类” 中的两种，世界范围内集中养殖的食用鲢鱼和ead鱼。在这里，我们分别构建了鲢鱼和ead鱼的837和845 Mb草图基因组组装，包括24,571和24,229个注释的蛋白质编码基因。分别获得了银和ead鱼的遗传图谱，锚定了所有支架的71.7% 和83.8%。系统发育分析表明，ead鱼与鲢鱼形成了一条进化枝，估计其分化时间为360万年前; 鲢鱼与斑马鱼的分化时间为5070万年前。东亚鲤科鱼的基因组特异性染色体融合发生在这一分支从含有鲤鱼和辛环che的分支分化后约920万年。KEGG和GO分析表明，银和ead鱼中扩增的基因家族与疾病、免疫系统和环境适应有关。基于42个个体的全基因组序列检测区分银和ead鱼群体的基因组区域。与分歧区域相关的基因与生殖系统发育和女性主要性征的发育有关。因此，我们的结果提供了对东亚鲤鱼的新的系统基因组分析，以及鲢鱼和ead鱼的进化和物种形成。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.