The Efficacy of Chest Computed Tomography in Pediatric Patients With Suspected COVID-19.
- 作者列表："Rona G","Voyvoda N","Arifoğlu M","Karaaslan A","Çetin C
OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to investigate chest computed tomography (CT) findings and the value of CT in the diagnosis in children with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Chest CT images of pediatric patients with suspected COVID-19 were retrospectively evaluated. Computed tomography findings were divided into 3 groups: normal, consistent, and inconsistent with COVID-19. The sensitivity and specificity of CT were calculated by reference to reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:The study included patients with a mean age of 11.1 years (1 month-17 years). Of the patients, 43 (40.19%) had normal CT, 34 (31.77%) had CT findings consistent with COVID-19, and 30 (28.04%) had CT findings inconsistent with COVID-19. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of CT were 47.92%, 81.36%, 67.65%, and 65.75%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Because the sensitivity of CT in the pediatric age group is low, it should be used cautiously for the evaluation of COVID-19 in the pediatric age group.
目的: 探讨疑似冠状病毒病2019 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 患儿的胸部CT表现及其诊断价值。 材料和方法: 回顾性分析新型冠状病毒肺炎疑似患儿的胸部CT图像。计算机断层扫描结果分为3组: 正常，一致，与新型冠状病毒肺炎不一致。参照逆转录聚合酶链反应计算CT的敏感性和特异性。 结果: 该研究包括平均年龄为11.1岁 (1个月-17岁) 的患者。患者中，43例 (40.19%) CT正常，34例 (31.77%) CT表现与新型冠状病毒肺炎一致，30例 (28.04%) CT表现与新型冠状病毒肺炎不一致。CT的敏感性、特异性、阳性预测值、阴性预测值分别为47.92% 、81.36% 、67.65% 、65.75%。 结论: 由于CT在儿童年龄组的敏感性较低，应谨慎用于儿童年龄组新型冠状病毒肺炎的评估。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.