Forward-projected Model-based Iterative Reconstruction SoluTion in Temporal Bone Computed Tomography: A Comparison Study of All Reconstruction Modes.
- 作者列表："Kurokawa R","Hagiwara A","Nakaya M","Maeda E","Yamaguchi H","Gonoi W","Sato J","Nakata K","Ino K","Ota Y","Kurokawa M","Baba A","Nyunoya K","Usui Y","Tanishima T","Tsushima S","Torigoe R","Suyama TQ","Abe O
OBJECTIVE:Identify appropriate reconstruction modes of Forward-projected model-based Iterative Reconstruction SoluTion (FIRST) in temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and investigate the contribution of spatial resolution and noise to the visual assessment. METHODS:Sixteen temporal bone CT images were reconstructed. Two blinded radiologists assessed 8 anatomical structures and classified the visual assessment. These visual scores were compared across reconstruction modes among each anatomical structure. Visual scores and contrast-to-noise ratio, noise power spectrum (NPS) at low (NPSLow) and high (NPSHigh) spatial frequencies, and 50% modulation transfer function relationships were evaluated. RESULTS:Visual scores differed significantly for the stapedius muscle and osseous spiral lamina, with CARDIAC SHARP, BONE, and LUNG modes for the osseous spiral lamina scoring highest. Visual scores significantly positively correlated with NPSLow, NPSHigh, and 50% modulation transfer function but negatively with contrast-to-noise ratio. CONCLUSIONS:Modes providing higher spatial resolution and lower noise reduction showed an improved visual assessment of CT images reconstructed with FIRST.
目的: 确定颞骨计算机断层扫描 (CT) 中基于前向投影模型的迭代重建解决方案 (FIRST) 的合适重建模式，并研究空间分辨率和噪声对视觉评估的贡献。 方法: 对16例颞骨CT图像进行重建。两名设盲的放射科医师评估了8个解剖结构，并对视觉评估进行了分类。在每个解剖结构之间的重建模式中比较这些视觉评分。评估了视觉评分和对比度噪声比、低 (NPSLow) 和高 (NPSHigh) 空间频率下的噪声功率谱 (NPS) 以及50% 调制传递函数关系。 结果: 镫骨肌和骨螺旋椎板的视觉评分显著不同，骨螺旋椎板的心脏尖锐、骨和肺模式评分最高。视觉评分与NPSLow、nphigh和50% 调制传递函数显著正相关，但与对比度噪声比呈负相关。 结论: 提供较高空间分辨率和较低噪声降低的模式显示了用FIRST重建的CT图像的改进的视觉评估。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.