- 作者列表："Yen A","Pfeffer Y","Blumenfeld A","Balcombe JN","Berland LL","Tanenbaum L","Kligerman SJ
OBJECTIVE:To investigate the performance of Dual-AI Deep Learning Platform in detecting unreported pulmonary nodules that are 6 mm or greater, comprising computer-vision (CV) algorithm to detect pulmonary nodules, with positive results filtered by natural language processing (NLP) analysis of the dictated report. METHODS:Retrospective analysis of 5047 chest CT scans and corresponding reports. Cases which were both CV algorithm positive (nodule ≥ 6 mm) and NLP negative (nodule not reported), were outputted for review by 2 chest radiologists. RESULTS:The CV algorithm detected nodules that are 6 mm or greater in 1830 (36.3%) of 5047 cases. Three hundred fifty-five (19.4%) were unreported by the radiologist, as per NLP algorithm. Expert review determined that 139 (39.2%) of 355 cases were true positives (2.8% of all cases). One hundred thirty (36.7%) of 355 cases were unnecessary alerts-vague language in the report confounded the NLP algorithm. Eighty-six (24.2%) of 355 cases were false positives. CONCLUSIONS:Dual-AI platform detected actionable unreported nodules in 2.8% of chest CT scans, yet minimized intrusion to radiologist's workflow by avoiding alerts for most already-reported nodules.
目的: 研究双AI深度学习平台在检测6毫米或更大的未报告肺结节方面的性能，包括计算机视觉 (CV) 算法来检测肺结节，阳性结果通过口述报告的自然语言处理 (NLP) 分析过滤。 方法: 回顾性分析5047例胸部ct扫描及相应报告。CV算法阳性 (结节 ≥ 6毫米) 和NLP阴性 (结节未报告) 的病例被输出供2名胸部放射科医师审查。 结果: CV算法在6毫米例中的1830例 (36.3%) 中检测到5047或更大的结节。根据NLP算法，放射科医师未报告19.4% 例 ().专家评审确定139例病例中有39.2% 例 (355) 为真阳性 (占所有病例的2.8%)。36.7% 例中有355例 () 是不必要的警告-报告中的模糊语言混淆了NLP算法。24.2% 例中86例 (355) 为假阳性。 结论: 双AI平台在2.8% 的胸部ct扫描中检测到可操作的未报告结节，但通过避免大多数已报告结节的警报，最小化了对放射科医生工作流程的入侵。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.