Assessment of Virtual Monoenergetic Images in Run-off Computed Tomography Angiography: A Comparison Study to Conventional Images From Spectral Detector Computed Tomography.
- 作者列表："Ren H","Zhen Y","Gong Z","Wang C","Chang Z","Zheng J
OBJECTIVE:The aims of this study were to evaluate image quality of virtual monoenergetic images (VMIs) compared with conventional images (CIs) from spectral detector CT (SDCT) and to explore the optimal energy level in run-off computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS:The data sets of 35 patients who received run-off CTA on the SDCT were collected in this retrospective study. Conventional images were generated via iterative reconstruction algorithm and VMI series from 40 to 120 keV were generated via spectral reconstruction algorithm. The objective indices including vascular attenuation, noise, signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast-to-noise ratio were compared. Two readers performed subjective evaluation using a 5-point scale. RESULTS:The attenuation showed higher values compared with CIs at 40 to 60 keV (P < 0.001). The noise was similar in 60- to 80-keV VMIs and significantly decreased in 90- to 120-keV VMIs (P < 0.001) in comparison with CIs. The signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were improved in 40- to 60-keV VMIs compared with CIs (P < 0.05). The score of subjective assessment was higher than that of CIs in 50- to 70-keV VMIs (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Virtual monoenergetic images can provide improved image quality compared with CIs from SDCT in run-off CTA, and VMIs at 60 keV may be the best choice in evaluating lower extremity arteries.
目的: 评价能谱CT (SDCT) 中虚拟单能量图像 (VMIs) 与常规图像 (CIs) 的图像质量，探讨流出道CT血管造影 (CTA) 的最佳能量水平。 方法: 本回顾性研究收集了35例在SDCT上接受流排CTA的患者的数据。传统图像通过迭代重建算法生成，VMI系列从40到120 keV通过光谱重建算法生成。比较血管衰减、噪声、信噪比和对比噪声比等客观指标。两名读者使用5分量表进行主观评价。 结果: 与CIs相比，40 ~ 60 kev时的衰减值较高 (P <0.001)。与CIs相比，噪声在60至80kev的vmi中相似，并且在90至120 keV的vmi中显著降低 (P <0.001)。与CIs相比，40 ~ 60 keV VMIs的信噪比和对比噪声比得到改善 (P <0.05)。在50 ~ 70kev的VMIs中，主观评价得分高于CIs (P <0.001)。 结论: 与SDCT的CIs相比，虚拟单能量图像可以提供更好的图像质量，60 kev的VMIs可能是评估下肢动脉的最佳选择。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.