Quantitative Analysis of Mobile Proteins in Normal Brain Tissue by Amide Proton Transfer Imaging: Age Dependence and Sex Differences.
- 作者列表："Sugawara K","Miyati T","Ueda R","Yoshimaru D","Nakamura M","Komatsu S","Hagiwara K","Saigusa K
PURPOSE:The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between age change and amide proton transfer (APT) signal in each region of the whole brain and to derive the standard value of APT signal in each brain region of normal adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Using the mDIXON 3-dimensional-APT sequence of the fast spin echo method, an APT image was obtained. In total, 60 patients (mean age, 49.8 ± 16.9 years) with no abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging data were included. For image analysis, registration parameters were created using the FMRIB Software Library 5.0.11, and then a region of interest was set in the Montreal Neurological Institute structural atlas for analysis. Statistical analyses were performed using the age-dependent and sex differences in APT signals from each brain region. RESULTS:No significant correlation was seen between APT signal and age and sex in all brain regions. CONCLUSION:Under the APT imaging parameter conditions used in this study, local brain APT signals in healthy adults are independent of age and sex.
目的: 本研究的目的是评估年龄变化与全脑各区域中酰胺质子转移 (APT) 信号之间的关系，并得出正常成人各脑区域中APT信号的标准值。 材料与方法: 利用快速自旋回波法的mDIXON 3维-APT序列，获得APT图像。总共纳入60例患者 (平均年龄，49.8 ± 16.9岁)，磁共振成像数据无异常发现。对于图像分析，使用FMRIB软件库5.0.11创建配准参数，然后在蒙特利尔神经学研究所结构图谱中设置感兴趣区域用于分析。使用来自每个脑区域的APT信号的年龄依赖性和性别差异进行统计分析。 结果: 全脑区APT信号与年龄、性别无明显相关性。 结论: 在本研究使用的APT成像参数条件下，健康成人的局部脑APT信号与年龄和性别无关。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.