Visualizing a protonated RNA state that modulates microRNA-21 maturation.
- 作者列表："Baisden JT","Boyer JA","Zhao B","Hammond SM","Zhang Q
:MicroRNAs are evolutionarily conserved small, noncoding RNAs that regulate diverse biological processes. Due to their essential regulatory roles, microRNA biogenesis is tightly regulated, where protein factors are often found to interact with specific primary and precursor microRNAs for regulation. Here, using NMR relaxation dispersion spectroscopy and mutagenesis, we reveal that the precursor of oncogenic microRNA-21 exists as a pH-dependent ensemble that spontaneously reshuffles the secondary structure of the entire apical stem-loop region, including the Dicer cleavage site. We show that the alternative excited conformation transiently sequesters the bulged adenine into a noncanonical protonated A+-G mismatch, conferring a substantial enhancement in Dicer processing over its ground conformational state. These results indicate that microRNA maturation efficiency may be encoded in the intrinsic dynamic ensemble of primary and precursor microRNAs, providing a potential means of regulating microRNA biogenesis in response to environmental and cellular stimuli.
: MicroRNAs是进化上保守的小型非编码rna，其调节多种生物过程。由于它们的基本调节作用，microRNA生物发生受到严格调节，其中经常发现蛋白质因子与特定的初级和前体microRNA相互作用以进行调节。在这里，使用NMR弛豫色散谱和诱变，我们揭示了致癌microRNA-21的前体以pH依赖性系综的形式存在，其自发地使整个顶端茎-环区域的二级结构 (包括Dicer切割位点) 重组。我们表明，替代激发构象瞬时螯合凸起的腺嘌呤为非规范质子化的a +-G错配，赋予Dicer加工对其地面构象状态的实质性增强。这些结果表明，microRNA成熟效率可能在初级和前体microRNA的内在动态集合中编码，提供了响应环境和细胞刺激调节microRNA生物发生的潜在手段。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.