- 作者列表："Li L","Williams P","Ren W","Wang MY","Gao Z","Miao W","Huang M","Song J","Wang Y
:The DNA guanine quadruplexes (G4) play important roles in multiple cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription and maintenance of genome stability. Here, we showed that Yin and Yang 1 (YY1) can bind directly to G4 structures. ChIP-seq results revealed that YY1-binding sites overlap extensively with G4 structure loci in chromatin. We also observed that the dimerization of YY1 and its binding with G4 structures contribute to YY1-mediated long-range DNA looping. Displacement of YY1 from G4 structure sites disrupts substantially the YY1-mediated DNA looping. Moreover, treatment with G4-stabilizing ligands modulates the expression of not only those genes with G4 structures in their promoters, but also those associated with distal G4 structures that are brought to close proximity via YY1-mediated DNA looping. Together, we identified YY1 as a DNA G4-binding protein, and revealed that YY1-mediated long-range DNA looping requires its dimerization and occurs, in part, through its recognition of G4 structure.
DNA鸟嘌呤四联体 (G4) 在多种细胞过程中起重要作用，包括DNA复制、转录和维持基因组稳定性。在这里，我们显示了阴阳1 (YY1) 可以直接结合G4结构。ChIP-seq结果显示YY1-binding个位点与染色质中的G4结构基因座广泛重叠。我们还观察到YY1的二聚化及其与G4结构的结合有助于YY1-mediated长程DNA循环。从G4结构位点置换YY1基本上破坏了DNA循环YY1-mediated。此外，用G4-stabilizing个配体处理不仅调节那些在其启动子中具有G4结构的基因的表达，而且调节那些与通过YY1-mediated个DNA循环而接近的远端G4结构相关的基因的表达。我们一起鉴定了YY1是一种DNA G4-binding蛋白，并揭示了YY1-mediated远程DNA循环需要其二聚化，部分是通过其对G4结构的识别而发生的。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.