Snapshots and ensembles of BTK and cIAP1 protein degrader ternary complexes.
- 作者列表："Schiemer J","Horst R","Meng Y","Montgomery JI","Xu Y","Feng X","Borzilleri K","Uccello DP","Leverett C","Brown S","Che Y","Brown MF","Hayward MM","Gilbert AM","Noe MC","Calabrese MF
:Heterobifunctional chimeric degraders are a class of ligands that recruit target proteins to E3 ubiquitin ligases to drive compound-dependent protein degradation. Advancing from initial chemical tools, protein degraders represent a mechanism of growing interest in drug discovery. Critical to the mechanism of action is the formation of a ternary complex between the target, degrader and E3 ligase to promote ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. However, limited insights into ternary complex structures exist, including a near absence of studies on one of the most widely co-opted E3s, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1). In this work, we use a combination of biochemical, biophysical and structural studies to characterize degrader-mediated ternary complexes of Bruton's tyrosine kinase and cIAP1. Our results reveal new insights from unique ternary complex structures and show that increased ternary complex stability or rigidity need not always correlate with increased degradation efficiency.
: 异双功能嵌合降解物是一类将靶蛋白募集到E3泛素连接酶以驱动化合物依赖性蛋白降解的配体。从最初的化学工具开始，蛋白质降解物代表了对药物发现越来越感兴趣的机制。对作用机制至关重要的是在靶标、降解物和E3连接酶之间形成三元复合物，以促进泛素化和随后的降解。然而，对三元复杂结构的了解有限，包括对最广泛选择的E3s之一，细胞凋亡抑制剂1 (cIAP1) 的研究几乎缺乏。在这项工作中，我们使用生物化学，生物物理和结构研究的组合来表征布鲁顿酪氨酸激酶和ciap1的降解物介导的三元复合物。我们的研究结果揭示了独特的三元复杂结构的新见解，并表明增加的三元复杂稳定性或刚性并不总是与增加的降解效率相关。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.