- 作者列表："Liauw BW","Afsari HS","Vafabakhsh R
:G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) relay information across cell membranes through conformational coupling between the ligand-binding domain and cytoplasmic signaling domain. In dimeric class C GPCRs, the mechanism of this process, which involves propagation of local ligand-induced conformational changes over 12 nm through three distinct structural domains, is unknown. Here, we used single-molecule FRET and live-cell imaging and found that metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) interconverts between four conformational states, two of which were previously unknown, and activation proceeds through the conformational selection mechanism. Furthermore, the conformation of the ligand-binding domains and downstream domains are weakly coupled. We show that the intermediate states act as conformational checkpoints for activation and control allosteric modulation of signaling. Our results demonstrate a mechanism for activation of mGluRs where ligand binding controls the proximity of signaling domains, analogous to some receptor kinases. This design principle may be generalizable to other biological allosteric sensors.
: g蛋白偶联受体 (gpcr) 通过配体结合域和细胞质信号传导域之间的构象偶联跨细胞膜传递信息。在二聚C类gpcr中，这一过程的机制是未知的，该过程涉及局部配体诱导的构象变化在12纳米以上通过三个不同的结构域传播。在这里，我们使用单分子FRET和活细胞成像，发现代谢型谷氨酸受体2 (mGluR2) 在四种构象状态之间相互转换，其中两种之前未知，激活通过构象选择机制进行。此外，配体结合结构域和下游结构域的构象是弱偶联的。我们表明，中间状态充当激活和控制信号的变构调节的构象检查点。我们的结果证明了mGluRs的激活机制，其中配体结合控制信号传导结构域的接近，类似于一些受体激酶。该设计原理可以推广到其他生物变构传感器。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.