- 作者列表："Chen X","Liao S","Makaros Y","Guo Q","Zhu Z","Krizelman R","Dahan K","Tu X","Yao X","Koren I","Xu C
:Degrons are elements within protein substrates that mediate the interaction with specific degradation machineries to control proteolysis. Recently, a few classes of C-terminal degrons (C-degrons) that are recognized by dedicated cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) have been identified. Specifically, CRL2 using the related substrate adapters FEM1A/B/C was found to recognize C degrons ending with arginine (Arg/C-degron). Here, we uncover the molecular mechanism of Arg/C-degron recognition by solving a subset of structures of FEM1 proteins in complex with Arg/C-degron-bearing substrates. Our structural research, complemented by binding assays and global protein stability (GPS) analyses, demonstrates that FEM1A/C and FEM1B selectively target distinct classes of Arg/C-degrons. Overall, our study not only sheds light on the molecular mechanism underlying Arg/C-degron recognition for precise control of substrate turnover, but also provides valuable information for development of chemical probes for selectively regulating proteostasis.
: Degrons是蛋白质底物中的元件，其介导与特定降解机制的相互作用以控制蛋白水解。最近，已经鉴定了由专用的cullin-环连接酶 (crl) 识别的几类C-末端degrons (C-degrons)。具体地，发现使用相关基底适配器FEM1A/B/C的CRL2识别以精氨酸 (Arg/C-degron) 结束的C degrons。在这里，我们通过求解与Arg/C-degron-承载底物复合的FEM1蛋白的结构子集来揭示Arg/C-degron识别的分子机制。我们的结构研究，辅以结合测定和全局蛋白稳定性 (GPS) 分析，证明FEM1A/C和FEM1B选择性靶向不同类别的Arg/C-degrons。总的来说，我们的研究不仅揭示了Arg/C-degron识别精确控制底物周转的分子机制，而且为开发选择性调节蛋白沉积的化学探针提供了有价值的信息。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.