Molecular basis for ubiquitin ligase CRL2FEM1C-mediated recognition of C-degron.
- 作者列表："Yan X","Wang X","Li Y","Zhou M","Li Y","Song L","Mi W","Min J","Dong C
:Proteome integrity depends on the ubiquitin-proteasome system to degrade unwanted or abnormal proteins. In addition to the N-degrons, C-terminal residues of proteins can also serve as degradation signals (C-degrons) that are recognized by specific cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) for proteasomal degradation. FEM1C is a CRL2 substrate receptor that targets the C-terminal arginine degron (Arg/C-degron), but the molecular mechanism of substrate recognition remains largely elusive. Here, we present crystal structures of FEM1C in complex with Arg/C-degron and show that FEM1C utilizes a semi-open binding pocket to capture the C-terminal arginine and that the extreme C-terminal arginine is the major structural determinant in recognition by FEM1C. Together with biochemical and mutagenesis studies, we provide a framework for understanding molecular recognition of the Arg/C-degron by the FEM family of proteins.
: 蛋白质组完整性依赖于泛素-蛋白酶体系统来降解不需要的或异常的蛋白质。除了N-degrons之外，蛋白质的C-末端残基还可以作为降解信号 (C-degrons)，其被蛋白酶体降解的特异性库林-环泛素连接酶 (crl) 识别。FEM1C是CRL2底物受体，其靶向C-末端精氨酸degron (Arg/C-degron)，但底物识别的分子机制仍然很难捉摸。在这里，我们提出了FEM1C与Arg/C-degron复合物的晶体结构，并表明FEM1C利用半开放的结合袋捕获C末端精氨酸，极端C末端精氨酸是FEM1C识别的主要结构决定因素。与生物化学和诱变研究一起，我们提供了一个框架，用于理解蛋白质的FEM家族对Arg/C-degron的分子识别。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.