- 作者列表："Li D","Liu C
:Amyloid aggregation, which disrupts protein homeostasis, is a common pathological event occurring in human neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). Numerous evidences have shown that the structural diversity, so-called polymorphism, is decisive to the amyloid pathology and is closely associated with the onset, progression, and phenotype of ND. But how could one protein form so many stable structures? Recently, atomic structural evidence has been rapidly mounting to depict the involvement of chemical modifications in the amyloid fibril formation. In this Perspective, we aim to present a hierarchical regulation of chemical modifications including covalent post-translational modifications (PTMs) and noncovalent cofactor binding in governing the polymorphic amyloid formation, based mainly on the latest α-synuclein and Tau fibril structures. We hope to emphasize the determinant role of chemical modifications in amyloid assembly and pathology and to evoke chemical biological approaches to lead the fundamental and therapeutic research on protein amyloid state and the associated NDs.
: 淀粉样蛋白聚集，其破坏蛋白质稳态，是人类神经退行性疾病 (NDs) 中发生的常见病理事件。大量证据表明，结构多样性，即所谓的多态性，对淀粉样蛋白病理学具有决定性作用，并且与ND的发病、进展和表型密切相关。但是一个蛋白质怎么会形成这么多稳定的结构呢？最近，原子结构证据迅速增加，以描述化学修饰参与淀粉样蛋白原纤维形成。从这个角度来看，我们的目标是提出一种化学修饰的分级调节，包括共价翻译后修饰 (PTMs) 和非共价辅因子结合，主要基于最新的 α-突触核蛋白和Tau原纤维结构来控制多态性淀粉样蛋白的形成。我们希望强调化学修饰在淀粉样蛋白组装和病理学中的决定性作用，并唤起化学生物学方法来领导蛋白质淀粉样蛋白状态和相关NDs的基础和治疗研究。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.