- 作者列表："Schutzius G","Kolter C","Bergling S","Tortelli F","Fuchs F","Renner S","Guagnano V","Cotesta S","Rueeger H","Faller M","Bouchez L","Salathe A","Nigsch F","Richards SM","Louis M","Gruber V","Aebi A","Turner J","Grandjean F","Li J","Dimitri C","Thomas JR","Schirle M","Blank J","Drueckes P","Vaupel A","Tiedt R","Manley PW","Klopp J","Hemmig R","Zink F","Leroy N","Carbone W","Roma G","Keller CG","Dales N","Beyerbach A","Zimmerlin A","Bonenfant D","Terranova R","Berwick A","Sahambi S","Reynolds A","Jennings LL","Ruffner H","Tarsa P","Bouwmeester T","Driver V","Frederiksen M","Lohmann F","Kirkland S
:Although most acute skin wounds heal rapidly, non-healing skin ulcers represent an increasing and substantial unmet medical need that urgently requires effective therapeutics. Keratinocytes resurface wounds to re-establish the epidermal barrier by transitioning to an activated, migratory state, but this ability is lost in dysfunctional chronic wounds. Small-molecule regulators of keratinocyte plasticity with the potential to reverse keratinocyte malfunction in situ could offer a novel therapeutic approach in skin wound healing. Utilizing high-throughput phenotypic screening of primary keratinocytes, we identify such small molecules, including bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) protein family inhibitors (BETi). BETi induce a sustained activated, migratory state in keratinocytes in vitro, increase activation markers in human epidermis ex vivo and enhance skin wound healing in vivo. Our findings suggest potential clinical utility of BETi in promoting keratinocyte re-epithelialization of skin wounds. Importantly, this novel property of BETi is exclusively observed after transient low-dose exposure, revealing new potential for this compound class.
: 虽然大多数急性皮肤伤口愈合迅速，但不愈合的皮肤溃疡代表了迫切需要有效治疗的日益增加的和大量未满足的医疗需求。角质形成细胞通过过渡到激活的迁移状态来重新覆盖伤口以重建表皮屏障，但这种能力在功能失调的慢性伤口中丧失。具有原位逆转角质形成细胞功能障碍潜力的角质形成细胞可塑性的小分子调节剂可以为皮肤伤口愈合提供一种新的治疗方法。利用初级角质形成细胞的高通量表型筛选，我们鉴定了这样的小分子，包括溴结构域和末端外结构域 (BET) 蛋白家族抑制剂 (BETi)。BETi在体外诱导角质细胞中的持续活化、迁移状态，增加离体人表皮中的活化标记物并增强体内皮肤伤口愈合。我们的研究结果表明，BETi在促进皮肤伤口角质细胞上皮再形成方面具有潜在的临床效用。重要的是，在短暂的低剂量暴露后专门观察到BETi的这种新性质，揭示了这种化合物类的新潜力。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.