- 作者列表："Fernández-Cruz I","Reynaud E
:The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major pathway for the maintenance of protein homeostasis. Its inhibition causes accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins; this accumulation has been associated with several of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Several genetic factors have been identified for most neurodegenerative diseases, however, most cases are considered idiopathic, thus making the study of the mechanisms of protein accumulation a relevant field of research. It is often mentioned that the biggest risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases is aging, and several groups have reported an age-related alteration of the expression of some of the 26S proteasome subunits and a reduction of its activity. Proteasome subunits interact with proteins that are known to accumulate in neurodegenerative diseases such as α-synuclein in Parkinson's, tau in Alzheimer's, and huntingtin in Huntington's diseases. These interactions have been explored for several years, but only until recently, we are beginning to understand them. In this review, we discuss the known interactions, the underlying patterns, and the phenotypes associated with the 26S proteasome subunits in the etiology and progression of neurodegenerative diseases where there is evidence of proteasome involvement. Special emphasis is made in reviewing proteasome subunits that interact with proteins known to have an age-related altered expression or to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases to explore key effectors that may trigger or augment their progression. Interestingly, while the causes of age-related reduction of some of the proteasome subunits are not known, there are specific relationships between the observed neurodegenerative disease and the affected proteasome subunits.
: 泛素-蛋白酶体系统是维持蛋白质稳态的主要途径。它的抑制引起泛素化蛋白的积累; 这种积累与几种最常见的神经退行性疾病有关。对于大多数神经退行性疾病，已经确定了几种遗传因素，然而，大多数病例被认为是特发性的，因此使得蛋白质积累机制的研究成为相关的研究领域。经常提到的是，神经退行性疾病的最大风险因素是衰老，并且几个群体已经报道了26s蛋白酶体亚基中的一些表达的年龄相关改变和其活性的降低。蛋白酶体亚基与已知在神经退行性疾病中积累的蛋白质相互作用，例如帕金森病中的 α-突触核蛋白、阿尔茨海默病中的tau蛋白和亨廷顿病中的亨廷顿蛋白。这些相互作用已经探索了几年，但直到最近，我们才开始理解它们。在这篇综述中，我们讨论了已知的相互作用，潜在的模式和与26s蛋白酶体亚基相关的表型，在神经退行性疾病的病因和进展中，有证据表明蛋白酶体参与。特别强调的是回顾与已知具有与年龄相关的改变的表达或参与神经退行性疾病的蛋白质相互作用的蛋白酶体亚基，以探索可能触发或增强其进展的关键效应物。有趣的是，虽然一些蛋白酶体亚基的年龄相关减少的原因尚不清楚，但观察到的神经变性疾病与受影响的蛋白酶体亚基之间存在特定的关系。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.