A Study of Botulinum Toxin A for Ultraviolet-Induced Hyperpigmentation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
- 作者列表："Vachiramon V","Kositkuljorn C","Leerunyakul K","Rattananukrom T","Jurairattanaporn N
BACKGROUND:Ultraviolet (UV) exposure contributes to skin hyperpigmentation. Recently, botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) showed a promising protective effect on UVB-induced hyperpigmentation in both in vitro and animal models. OBJECTIVE:The study aimed to investigate the preventive effect of BoNT-A against UVB-induced hyperpigmentation in human subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial was performed in 15 healthy participants. Four separate square areas on the abdomen were randomly injected intradermally with different dilutions of BoNT-A (1:2.5, 1:5, 1:7.5) and normal saline (control). Two weeks after injection, hyperpigmented spots were induced by UVB irradiation at the experimental sites. The lightness index and hyperpigmentation scores from blinded physician and participants were evaluated. RESULTS:Fifteen participants completed the study. One week after UVB irradiation, all BoNT-A-treated sites had a significantly lower degree of hyperpigmentation than the control site in lightness index and hyperpigmentation scores from blinded physician and participants (p < .05). However, no statistically significant difference was observed between different concentrations of BoNT-A. No side effects were observed throughout the study period. CONCLUSION:Intradermal BoNT-A injection provided a protective effect from UVB-induced hyperpigmentation. It may be used for other hyperpigmentation disorders that are aggravated by UVB.
背景: 紫外线 (UV) 暴露导致皮肤色素沉着。最近，a型肉毒杆菌神经毒素 (BoNT-A) 在体外和动物模型中都显示出对UVB诱导的色素沉着的有希望的保护作用。 目的: 探讨BoNT-A对UVB诱导的人色素沉着的预防作用。 材料和方法: 在15名健康参与者中进行了一项前瞻性、双盲、随机对照试验。在腹部的四个单独的正方形区域随机皮内注射不同稀释度的BoNT-A (1:2.5，1:5，1:7.5) 和生理盐水 (对照)。注射后2周，通过UVB照射在实验部位诱导色素沉着斑点。评估了来自盲医师和参与者的亮度指数和色素沉着评分。 结果: 15名参与者完成了研究。UVB照射后1周，所有BoNT-A处理的部位在明度指数和来自设盲医师和参与者的色素沉着评分方面的色素沉着程度显著低于对照部位 (p <.05)。然而，在不同浓度的BoNT-A之间没有观察到统计学上显著的差异。在整个研究期间没有观察到副作用。 结论: 皮内注射BoNT-A对UVB诱导的色素沉着具有保护作用。可用于其他因UVB而加重的色素沉着异常。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.