A multivariate analysis of the association between corticostriatal functional connectivity and psychosis-like experiences in the general community.
- 作者列表："Pani SM","Sabaroedin K","Tiego J","Bellgrove MA","Fornito A
:Dysfunction of dorsal corticostriatal (CST) circuitry is thought to play an important role in psychosis. Here, we use multivariate analysis to characterize covariance between CST functional connectivity and psychosis-like experiences (PLEs) in non-clinical individuals. In 353 healthy adults (155 males), we use partial least squares (PLS) to identify latent variables (LV) describing covariance between seven PLE questionnaire measures and functional connectivity estimated between each of six striatal seed regions and the rest of the brain using multiband resting-state fMRI. Hypothesis-driven PLS of the dorsal caudate (DC) seed identified one significant LV, accounting for 23.88% of covariance, with loadings from nearly all PLE subscales. Cortical regions implicated in this LV comprise anterior cingulate and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Lower connectivity between these cortical areas and the DC seed was associated with more severe PLEs. Using multivariate modeling, we identified an association between dorsal CST connectivity and PLEs in the general community that implicates similar brain regions to those identified in patient groups. Our results highlight that the severity of both positive/negative symptom-like PLEs is related with functional coupling between the DC and dorsolateral PFC, suggesting this neural circuit may play a role in mediating risk for general psychosis-related psychopathology.
: 背侧皮质纹状体 (CST) 回路的功能障碍被认为在精神病中起重要作用。在这里，我们使用多变量分析来表征非临床个体中CST功能连接和精神病样经历 (PLEs) 之间的协方差。在353名健康成年人 (155名男性) 中，我们使用偏最小二乘法 (PLS) 来识别潜在变量 (LV)，描述使用多频带静息态fMRI在六个纹状体种子区域和大脑其余部分之间估计的七个问卷测量和功能连接之间的协方差。背侧尾状核 (DC) 种子的假设驱动PLS鉴定了一个显著的LV，占协方差的23.88%，载荷来自几乎所有PLE分量表。涉及该LV的皮质区域包括前扣带和左背外侧前额叶皮质。这些皮质区域和DC种子之间的较低连接性与更严重的PLEs相关。使用多变量建模，我们在一般社区中确定了背CST连通性和PLEs之间的关联，这与患者组中确定的脑区域相似。我们的研究结果强调，阳性/阴性症状样样本的严重程度与DC和背外侧PFC之间的功能耦合有关，表明这种神经回路可能在介导一般精神病相关精神病理学的风险中起作用。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.