Alterations of Cerebral Blood Flow Network in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia patients with and without Apathy.
- 作者列表："Zhou Z","Zheng X","Li R","Zheng Y","Jin Y","Jia S","Peng D","Jiao J
:Apathy is one of the core symptoms in behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and increases patient's morbidity and caregiver's distress. In this study, we applied a graph theoretical analysis (GTA) to analyze the topological properties of cerebral blood flow (CBF) network in 64 bvFTD patients with and without apathy (47 bvFTD-apathy and 17 bvFTD-woapathy, respectively), and 20 normal controls (NCs) based on single photon emission tomography (SPECT). Compared with the NCs, both the bvFTD groups preserved global function and typical features of small-worldness, but exhibited the loss of hubs mainly distributed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Compared with bvFTD-woapathy, the bvFTD-apathy group exhibited additional loss of hubs in the ventral PFC areas, middle cingulate cortex, limbic and paralimbic system, and subcortical regions, but recruited hubs in the areas of angular gyrus, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis that the disruption of frontostriatal circuit is associated with apathy in bvFTD.
: 情感淡漠是额颞叶痴呆 (bvFTD) 行为变异的核心症状之一，并增加患者的发病率和照顾者的痛苦。在这项研究中，我们应用图形理论分析 (GTA) 来分析64个患有和不患有情感淡漠的bvFTD患者 (分别为47个bvFTD-情感淡漠和17个bvFTD-woapathy) 和20个正常对照 (NCs) 的脑血流 (CBF) 网络的拓扑特性。基于单光子发射断层成像 (SPECT)。与NCs相比，bvFTD组保留了全局功能和典型的小世界特征，但表现出主要分布在前额叶皮层 (PFC) 的中枢缺失。与bvFTD-woapathy相比，bvFTD-athy组在腹侧PFC区域、中扣带皮层、边缘和副营养系统以及皮层下区域表现出更多的中枢缺失，但在角回、前叶和后扣带皮层区域招募中枢。总的来说，我们的发现支持了这样的假设，即额纹状体回路的破坏与bvFTD中的淡漠相关。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.