- 作者列表："Vattimo EFQ","Dos Santos AC","Hoexter MQ","Frudit P","Miguel EC","Shavitt RG","Batistuzzo MC
:Differences in hippocampus volume have been identified in adult patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the role of this limbic structure in pediatric patients is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the hippocampus and its subregions in a sample of 29 children and adolescents with OCD compared to 28 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, education, and IQ. Volumetric segmentation was performed using the Freesurfer software to calculate the volumes of the subregions that reflect the hippocampal cytoarchitecture. The volumes of three anatomic subregions (tail, body, and head) were also calculated. ANCOVA was performed to investigate differences of these volumes between patients and controls, controlling for total gray matter volume. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (p-value < 0.00556 for the body and < 0.00625 for the head structures), patients presented statistically significant larger volumes of the following structures: left subiculum body; left CA4 body; left GC-DG body; left molecular layer body; right parasubiculum; left CA4 head; left molecular layer head; right subiculum head and right molecular layer head. These enlarged volumes resulted in larger left and right whole hippocampi in patients, as well as bilateral hippocampal heads and left hippocampal body (all p-values < 0.00625). There were no associations between OCD severity and hippocampal volumes. These findings diverge from previous reports on adults and may indicate that larger hippocampal volumes could reflect an early marker of OCD, not present in adults.
: 在患有强迫症 (OCD) 的成年患者中已经确定了海马体积的差异。然而，这种边缘结构在儿科患者中的作用尚不清楚。本研究旨在调查29名强迫症儿童和青少年的海马及其亚区域，与28名健康对照相比，年龄，性别，教育和智商相匹配。使用Freesurfer软件进行体积分割，以计算反映海马细胞结构的子区域的体积。还计算了三个解剖区域 (尾部、身体和头部) 的体积。进行ANCOVA以研究患者和对照之间这些体积的差异，控制总灰质体积。在对多重比较进行Bonferroni校正后 (身体的p值 <0.00556，头部结构的p值 <0.00625)，患者表现出具有统计学意义的较大体积的以下结构: 左囊下体; 左CA4体; 左gc-dg体; 左分子层体; 右枕旁体; 左CA4头;左分子层头、右囊下头、右分子层头。这些扩大的体积导致患者中更大的左和右整个海马，以及双侧海马头和左海马体 (所有p值 <0.00625)。OCD严重程度与海马体积之间没有相关性。这些发现与以前关于成人的报告有所不同，可能表明较大的海马体积可以反映OCD的早期标志物，而在成人中不存在。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.