- 作者列表："Garobbio S","Roinishvili M","Favrod O","da Cruz JR","Chkonia E","Brand A","Herzog MH
:In visual backward masking (VBM), a target is followed by a mask that decreases target discriminability. Schizophrenia patients (SZ) show strong and reproducible masking impairments, which are associated with reduced EEG amplitudes. Patients with bipolar disorder (BP) show masking deficits, too. Here, we investigated the neural EEG correlates of VBM in BP. 122 SZ, 94 unaffected controls, and 38 BP joined a standard VBM experiment. 123 SZ, 94 unaffected controls and 16 BP joined a corresponding EEG experiment, analyzed in terms of global field power. As in previous studies, SZ and BP show strong masking deficits. Importantly and similarly to SZ, BP show decreased global field power amplitudes at approximately 200 ms after the target onset, compared to controls. These results suggest that VBM deficits are not specific for schizophrenia but for a broader range of functional psychoses. Potentially, both SZ and BP show deficient target enhancement.
: 在视觉反向掩蔽 (VBM) 中，目标之后是降低目标可辨性的掩蔽。精神分裂症患者 (SZ) 表现出强烈且可重复的掩蔽损伤，这与EEG振幅降低有关。双相情感障碍 (BP) 患者也表现出掩蔽缺陷。在这里，我们研究了BP中VBM的神经脑电图相关性。122个SZ、94个未受影响的对照和38个BP加入标准VBM实验。123个SZ、94个未受影响的对照和16个BP加入了相应的EEG实验，根据全局场功率进行了分析。与之前的研究一样，SZ和BP显示强掩蔽缺陷。重要的是，与SZ类似，与对照相比，BP在目标开始后约200 ms处显示出降低的全局场功率振幅。这些结果表明VBM缺陷不是精神分裂症的特异性，而是更广泛的功能性精神病。潜在地，SZ和BP都显示缺乏的靶标增强。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.